Все что вы хотели знать о драконах но боялись спросить. Руководство для художников. / красивые картинки :: длиннопост :: драконы :: длинный длиннопост :: art (арт)

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Все что вы хотели знать о драконах но боялись спросить.

Руководство для художников.

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драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые картинки

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 DRAC0P6DIA rr Hi c DRAGONS An Artist's Fielt> Guibe anD draining Journal William O'Connor IMPACT CcsC^NATl Cfi>0 www. i mpact-books.com,драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые картинки

Introduction 6 Drawing Materials 8 Digital Painting Tools 10 Acadian Dragon Dracorextis acadius Great Dragon of the rugged Maine seacoast 12 Icelandic Dragon Dracorexus reykjavikus Great Dragon of the frozen north 28 Scandinavian dragon Dracorexus songenjjordus Cobalt and azure-scaled

Chinese dragon Dracorexus cathidaeus Majestic dragon king of Asia and the Yellow Sea elwah dragon Dracorexus klallaminus Majestic dragon god of the Pacific Northwest Appendix 1: Dragon Taxonomic Chart 142 Appendix 2: Dragon Anatomy Appendix 3: Dragon Flight 146 Appendix 4: Dragon Poses

IntrodutMU] CaKceU To help me on my journey 1 recruited the aid of my faithful apprentice, Conceil Delacroix, whom 1 met while he was studying art history at the College of New York. For several years Conceil has been a great help in my studio in New York. Fluent in English. French and Italian,

^»weoaggooooeQaiegciy/xcacc^caaa^^ INTRODUCTION . i There are over one thousand species of dragons living on all seven continents and in each of the four oceans of the world. Most of us have seen many of these animals in zoological gardens or nature museums, and some of you may even keep

NG MATERIALS: WORKING IN THE FIELD When working as an artist in the field, weight is of paramount importance. Everything you need will have to he :ed in as there are no art supply stores in the back country. Here’s a checklist of typical gear Conceil and I will carrying on the expedition: □

Overhand Grip This grip is a common way to hold the pencil white sketching and is good for shading. Hold the pencil in a way that Is most comfortable for you. Clutch Pencil and Lead Holder When traveling this is my drafting tool of choice, usually consisting of metal casing with a claw at one

Digital Painting TOOLS Today there is a wide variety of tools available to the digital painter. Adobe* Photoshop' and Corel“ Painter " are the most commonly used and available combined with either a tablet or a tablet monitor as well as a keyboard and mouse. Setting yourself up with the tools

Tablet and Stylus Tablets range in size and go up exponentially in price as they go up in size. I use a medium-sized tablet since it fits comfortably onto my tablet easel. Today there are tablet-screens, but for me they have not become cost effective yet. Notice that I have the tablet propped up

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X. SPECIFICATIONS Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/D.Acadius Size: 50' to 75' (15m to 23m) Wingspan: 85' (26m) Weight: 17.000 lbs. (7700kg) Recognition: Bright green markings, feathered frill plumage, nasal and chin horns on males: pale green and yellow markings

 Acadian Expedition Before leaving on our expedition to see Acadian green dragons in the wild, Conceil and 1 made a stop to see the country’s most famous dragon in captivity, Phineus. Fort Tryon Park Zoo in upper Manhattan is home to Phineus, a 140 year old Acadian green dragon that has lived in

The WlndDragon Our home for the Acadian expedition was a one masted sailboat, the WindDragon. This 19th century sloop allowed us to navigate around the archipelago of Acadia National Dragon Preserve to observe and draw the dragons that live there. Phineus, who had been living in a small cramped

11" I begins looking for a new lair where he begins a family of his own. Green dragons are extremely long lived, with the oldest specimen, Mowhak, having been first reported in 1768. The hibernation habits of the Acadian green dragon contribute to its longevity. It is believed that a dragon may

Acadian Green Dragon Plumage The Acadian green dragon is one of the few Great Dragon species that has feathers. The male produces bright display plumage to attract females. The nasal bom grows brighter red during mating season. Tite female dragon has dull, mottled colors to camouflage herself.

Behavior The Acadian green dragon, like its other Great Dragon cousins, makes its habitat along rocky shorelines. The mary diet of the Acadian is the prolific whales and cetaceans of the North Atlantic Ocean, especially killer and t whales that migrate to the southern waters in the fall, male

 Mating Dances The dragons of Acadia put on dramatic mating dances using complex songs and wing displays. At night their fire light illuminates the sty. Overlooking Shores A large male surveying his terntory. Males fluff their feathered frills and make elaborate throaty songs that echo across

History The first recorded account of a green dragon was in 1602 when English explorer Bartholomew Gosnold, while mapping New England, reported sighting “a large dragon species inhabiting many of the harborsIt is under stood that dragons had lived for millennia along the New England coast line of

7foe Green. Mwwvtaut Lodge Captain Winslow has been a fountain of information regarding the history of the Acadian green dragon. We have spent many hours cruising the beautiful islands being regaled by his stories. He tells us that at one time Cadillac Mountain, which stands about 1,500‘ (457m)

DEMONSTRATION Acadian Green Dragon Back in my studio, I begin to plan a large-scale painting of the Acadian green dragon. 1 start by going through the dozens of sketches and studies 1 executed on Mt. Desert Island. I then sketch a rough design to establish a basic balanced composition that will

2 Do a Final Drawing Once you've established the basic silhouette and forms of the design, flesh out the details of the dragon and add other elements of interest to finalize your composition. It's here that the anatomy studies done on location in Marne come in handy. In my initial design I had

 TUTORIAL: DRAWING BASICS The pencil is no doubt the first and the most important drawing implement the artist can employ, especially when young and first learning. While in Maine studying dragons, Conceil, my apprentice, was fascinated by this simple tool and asked me to show him a few of the

5 Establish the Underpainting Create a new layer in 50% opacity Normal mode. Rough in the color palette, giving each object a generalized local color, then work on the interrelation of the orange sunlight filtering through the translucent green wing. 4 Set Base Color Transform your sketch from

6 Lay In Shadows Lay down a 50% opacity Multiply mode layer and establish shadows to help unify the dark forms. Refine the Background Begin refining the background elements. To keep these forms in the background, use low chroma and contrast and generalize the details. This helps establish the

8 Add the Foreground Details and Finishing Touches Render the details on the dragon. At this stage colors become more saturated, brushes become more opaque, the contrasts increase and the brushes get smaller. Note that as the yellow light passes through the green wing, a saturated yellow-green is

Dracorexus reykjavikus SPECIFICATIONS Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/ D. reykj aviku s Size: 50' to 75' (15m to 23m) Wingspan: 85 (26m) Weight: 20.000 lbs. (9000kg) Recognition: Markings range from pure white to mottled brown, depending on the season: broad

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Icelandic Expedition Conceil and I arrived in Reykjavik, Iceland, to continue our adventure drawing the Great Dragons of the world and study the great Icelandic w'hite dragon. We were met by our Icelandic dragon guide Sigurd Nitlheim who is both a professor at the Icelandic Museum of Natural

0«ä ¿fetykiti Olafsvik ICELAND Reykjavik,драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые картинки

Biology Ranging as far north as Greenland, as far west as Prince Edward Island, Canada, and as far southeast as the Orkney Islands in Scotland, the Icelandic white dragon has been known to come into contact with the Acadian, Welsh and Scandinavian dragons. The most famous encounter, of course,

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O300000P0OP&90C0CCOQ9Q0OS0P0PQP3000000COSO3O5CCOPa3O3O9SGOCCCOPP000Qg»SO0000CCO0CO0P900CO0CCg0C0O0P9CO0S»a9CipgS'aS Behavior Unlike most other Great Dragons of the world, the Icelandic white dragon is so prolific that competition for premium nesting grounds is fierce. Males often spar in the

 «#№№№№? Mating Habits The male Icelandic white dragon has a largo wattle under its chin that turns red during the mating season. As part of its display, he is able to Inflate the wattle; combined with its loud calls, fire beacons and wing displays, wtiat a dramatic sight! Soaring The

Viking Masthead, Circa 500 a.d. The Icelandic white dragon must have harassed early Viking explorers of Iceland. The Olafsvik Dragon Museum has a wonderful collection of early Icelandic objects Including this early masthead. Courtesy of the Clafsvik Dragon Museum. Ice Horn The early Nordic

Confrontations With Narwhals ThrouglKnjt history, the most famous of all the Icelandic white dragon's prey has been the enigmatic narwhal. Living within the extreme northern range of the Icelandic white dragon, the nar whal is one of the few animals in the world that has evolved a natural defense

■kt DEMONSTRATION ICELANDIC WHITE DRAGON When planning a painting of the Icelandic white dragon, itemize the qualities of the dragon that have been learned through the previous studies: • White markings • Arctic environment • Large delta wing design • Broad skull horns and dramatic upward

2 Complete the Preliminary Computer Sketch Working with your computer, create a sketch in a Photoshop grayscale document. Refer to your thumbnail design to begin the painting. This preliminary sketch phase is for general placement of the main figure to see how it is balanced in the format. Note

TUTORIAL: WH ITE-ON-WHITE When working in my studio on the painting of the Icelandic white dragon, 1 was reminded of a day in Iceland. Conceit Niflheim and I were socked in on the slopes of Mt. Snaefellsjokull during a terrible snowstorm. Spending our time sketching in the shelter as the snow

3Add Shading and Value Variation Gradually develop the anatomy and design of the dragon on top of your preliminary sketch. Use shading and value variation since the white-on-white palette will be fairly limited in hue. The values of the shapes and their contrasts against their adjacent shapes

cr 5 Establish Color Change your digital file mode to RGB and shift the color balance to any color you want to enhance your underpainting. 6 Continue Developing Color Work in semitransparent layers over your underpainting—also known as ébauche. This is the same whether working traditionally or

7 Render the Final Details At this point all forms of color and value relationships are established, as well as all of the compositional design elements. It is now time to render all of the details of the final painting. The palette uses rich colors, opaque paint and the finest detail brushes.

 Scandinavian Dragon S Dracorexus songenjjordus 44,драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые картинки

Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/D.songenfjordus Size: 50' to 100' (15m to 30m) Wingspan: 75' to 85* (23m to 26m) Weight: 20.000 lbs. (9080kg) Recognition: Bright blue markings on males (subtler on females); elongated snout; paddle rudder on tail; canard wing

Scandinavian Expedition From Iceland we moved eastward on our World Dragon Expedition to Scandinavia. Conceil and I arrived safely in the city of Bergen, Norway, on our next leg of the adventure to study the great Scandinavian blue dragon. The city of Bergen is the cultural capital of Norway,

Tagging Dragons for Research Following a dragon's movement throughout a year is important to Dr. Freyason s research. It Indicates where the most common feeding grounds are. aids in an accurate census and helps support the theory that males do the majority of the hunting while females tend to

cetaceans, makes The Scandinavian blue dragon is a broad-ranging species down to make lairs as far south as Scotland, east into Russia, and even as far west as the Faroe Islands (thus bringing ; blue dragon into occasional contact with white and dragons). The plentiful populations of seals,

 Color Variations The famous blue dragon of Norway Is not always blue. The Scandinavian dragon possesses the widest range of coloring among individuals and regions, even changing throughout the seasons. Patterns and colors on these males make identification easier for scientists. Scandinavian

aydssfesfigfi Behavior herring. The extinction of the European wyvern in the late 19th century, combined with whale hunting controls in the late 20th century, has helped to \m, l dramatically increase the number of Scandinavian blue dragons. ki. As such, they have the highest conserva- i tion

Hunting Soaring high over the North Atlantic coast of Norway, the Scandinavian blue dragon can glide for hours searching the ocean for pods of whales and schools of fish. Fishing The long thin snout on the Scandinavian blue dragon allows it to agilely hunt fish at the water s edge. Although all

¡wnat#.w-tew+++* * * *+++*+*++*++++* 0t randinavian blue dragon has not posed much of it to humans despite living in close proximity for •ies. The dragon has been regarded by Scandinavian es as a creature of great magic and power and was ularly revered by early Nordic and Viking cultures, the

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DEMONSTRATION Scandinavian blue Dragon In my studio I am able to begin working on my final painting of the Scandinavian blue dragon. Referencing my journal notes and sketches, I try to develop a painting that will exhibit this beautiful animal to its best. It is helpful to itemize the features

J7] 2 Complete the Preliminary Computer Sketch Once you have settled on a basic design, begin your computer sketch using a stylus and tablet. Use simple chisel and round brushes while sketching to replicate the aesthetic of pencil drawing and broad paintbrush washes. At this point work in

TUTORIAL: COMPOSITION Composition is the fundamental arrangement of elements that make up a work of art. The goal in painting, as in music, dance or any other art form, is to create a composition that is balanced. Too much of one thing or another can throw off the arrangement and make the work

3Add the First Layer of Details Once you're satisfied with the design of the painting, double the dpi to 300, allowing you to work In close and render all the little tiddly bits and fjords that are so much fun. Detailing the wings and scales helps make the animal much more

5 Add a New Layer of Color Apply a new layer of semiopaque paint (ébauche) over the underpainting, applying a local color and some added texture to the forms in the image. Blocking in a color, ébauche is done with broad simple brushes in a 50% opacity normal mode. 6 Add Texture and Deepen the

***** 7 Add the Details Deepen the colors and render the details of the dragon’s face and body. Don't forget that little dot of white to make his eye look wet. How do you paint a dragon? One brushstroke at a time. There are no shortcuts or filters or tricks you can use to get the effect you

 TT WELSH DRAGON Dracorexus idraigoxus SPECIFICS IO\S Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/ Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/D. idraigoxus Size: 75’ (23m) Wingspan: 100- (30m) Weight: 30,000 lbs (13620kg) Recognition: Bright red markings on males (subtler on females); nasal and chin horn on

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LSH EXPEDITION lilL Range of the Welsh Dragon \ map shows the known dragon lairs in northern Wales. o' WALES \ : departing Trondheim, Norway, Conceil and I set off to Northern Wales. Landing in Cardiff, we transported our ves by way of the British rail system through the beaut i fill

OR Welsh Cane This cane was presented to Sir Geoffreys greatgrandfather in 1899 by Edward, Prince of Wales, future King Edward VII of England. This prized family heirloom has passed from father to son for three generations. The head of the cane is a claw from a dragon hunted by the prince and

Sir Geoffrey explained to us during our expedition a great ral about the biology of the Welsh red dragon. While it is ic that the Welsh red is the rarest of the western dragons, its protected status for hundreds of years under the protec -of the royal crown has allowed the animal to survive. Like

^ i L £ j i . L\i P* Color Variations Like other dragons, the Welsh red dragon has a wide variation of patterns and colors between male and female. The frills and horns of the male are absent in the female, as are the bright markings that become deeper in the fall. Welsh Red Dragon Juvenile

"dragon on the moor" The great Welsh red dragon ot folklore and history is by tar the most famous within the Dracorexidae family of drag-. Although the red dragons do not have as large a range the white and blue dragons and are far rarer (estimated than 200 remaining), they hold the distinctions

Dragon Songs Welsh red dragons bellow deep sonorous songs that can be heard over tong miles. This helps them to navigate among other dragons even when visibility is low. Wings as Protection The large sail-like wings of dragons are filled with blood vessels. Lying in the warm sun, even on a cold

It Perhaps nowhere else in the world is the land so intertwined with its dragons as in Wales. Wales is synonymous with dragons, and the Welsh red dragon is emblazoned on their Hag and woven into their national mythology, i' The dragons had very little contact with humans until the ['English

WeUk Rzd Siyktmys Here are a few of the sketches of the Welsh red dragon from our treks through the Trcnadog Royal Dragon Trust. 69,драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые картинки

Welsh Red Dragon Working in my studio, I used sketchbooks of studies from our trip to Wales to develop a painting of the Welsh red dragon. My first memory was of its bright fire displays. I knew that this painting would need to be dominated by the dramatic fire light. Here is a list of aspects of

2 Establish the Underpainting Refine the drawing in grayscale to render the dragon's form. In this early stage. I include a large fireball as a major compositional element. Establish the form and value of the lighting and light effects. 71,драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые

r Intensify the Light Source Surrounding your light source with a field of darker, more muted colors makes it appear even brighter. In this example you can see why dragons use fire to communicate over great distances. At night, these beacons can be seen for miles, turning a simple sketch into a

4 Establish the Colors Apply 50% opaque Normal mode layer over the painting to establish the local colors of the elements. Choosing complemen tary colors for this image is quite obvious-. A red dragon and a bright yellow fireball dictate a dark purple and green background. This creates both color

TUTORIAL: PRACTICE LIGHTING WITH SCULPTURE Practice and study sculpture to better understand the behavior of light and shadow on objects. When you are stumped on how a certain object should look under particular lighting, work from a model. I have a collection of toy monsters and dinosaurs that

6 Add the Finishing Touches Rendering the little details is the hardest but most important part of finishing a painting. At times it can be daunting, but the rewards are well worth it. As I often told Conceit along our expedition when he would grumble, the difference between a professional and an

 LIGURIAN DRAGON Dracorexus cinqaterrus SPECIFICATIONS Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/ Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/D.cinqaterrus Wingspan: 25' (8m) Weight: 2.500 lbs. (1135kg) Recognition: Gray-silver markings on males with bright lavender-violet during mating season: subtler colors on

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Ligurian Expedition cold of northern European climates that Conceil have traveled since we left America, the warm and sunny coast of Italy, known as the Cinque Terre, was a wel come change. After departing northern Wales and spend-everal days in London, our journey took us southward Italy to

 IXQl AND J UE ENVIRON! LIGURIA A'iosso Monte Gagnant TALY Map of the Cinque Terre, Italy Italian and Ligurian Rags Liguria Is a region in northern Italy containing the province of La Spezia. pp 1 If* Wy,драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые картинки

Biology ’vf; The Ligurian gray dragon is not only the rarest but also the most biologically different of all of the Great Dragons. It is > also the only dragon species that has more than live supra-metacarpals in its wings. A total of ten metacarpal bones radiate out from the radius and ulna

Ligurian Gray Dragon Male Overhead, Wingspan 25' (8m) The coloring on the male ranges from pale silver to vibrant purple. Ligurian Gray Dragon Female Overhead, Wingspan 25' (8m) The mottled brown tones of the female allow her to camouflage into the rocky cliffs. Ligurian Gray Dragon Egg, 6"

terranean Seas (ACCBAMS), in 1998 the population of porpoises in these waters had dropped 99 percent since 1950 (from 1 million to 10,000). In the late 20th century, drastic measures were taken to protect cetaceans living in the Mediterranean. 'I he Pelagos Marine Sanctuary, formerly the Ligurian

Sunbathing Gray Dragon The Mediterranean sun helps the warm themselves. Feeding Frenzy The relatively small teeth of the gray dragon are used to grasp the fish that it feeds upon. ATTENTZIONE! Non Somministrare i Dragoni Do Not Feed The Dragons Ne Pas Nourrir ies Dragons No se Alimentan los

History Based upon documents from earlier studies and depictions in scientific journals from as early as the 17th century, it is believed that the Ligurian gray dragon has shrunk in size almost 30 percent. With the depletion of marine mammals, the gray has needed to change its feeding habits from

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 Gray Dragon of the Ligurian dragon is quite different others. Revisiting my sketchbooks and notes, I of the exquisite colors present on the Italian Here is an itemization of the qualities I want to include to best illustrate this dragon: • Elaborate head frills • Elongated and sinuous body

 555 2 Complete the Preliminary Computer Sketch Whether you are working in a traditional or digital medium, the process of drawing is the same. Beginning the work with large general shapes allows the drawing to come into focus slowly and broadly. The image is in grayscale at this point so as to

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5 Add Color Start painting the first new layer. Set at 50% opacity Normal layer using bright colors on a broad loose allows you to establish local colors individual objects. Keep it loose and fast. Separating this with a new layer allows you to make changes or experiment with colors without

6 Lay In Shadows Create a new 50% opacity Multiply mode layer, and lay a loose glaze of shadows. This technique is a holdover from an oil painting technique where you lay In a colored glaze in order to reestablish the forms and light after the initial color underpainting. 7 Refine the Background

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Crimean Expedition Departing from the sunny and bright climate of northern Italy, Conceil and 1 began the next leg of our expedition to one of the most mysterious dragon regions of the world— the Ukraine and the Crimean peninsula. Here we studied the least understood of the Great Dragons, the

Range of the Crimean Black Dragon CRIMEAN BLACK DRAGON К p иMс ь к i Ч о p н о г о Дракона Historical Range Present Range,драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые картинки

Crimean black dragon is fairly small by comparison to some of its Great Dragon cousins, usually being no more than 25' (8m) long with a 50' (15m) wingspan. There are, however, rumors that during the height of the War, Soviet scientists at the Dracotechnikal Institute were bioengineering

 м¡ж£т£ма£к6а Crimean Black Dragon Male Overhead, Wingspan 50’ (15m) Crimean Black Dragon Female Overhead, Wingspan 50' (15m) Crimean Black Dragon Head The distinctive profile of the Crimean black dragon's head varies by individual and more greatly between families. Both the male and female

 Behavior The Crimean black dragon once ted upon the legendary sturgeon that grew to extraordinary sizes, but the diminishing sea life of the region has caused the dragon to diminish in both size and numbers. The Crimean black dragon was at one time a common sight as far west as the Carpathian

Crimean Lair Before the 20th century. Crimean black dragons made their lairs in the craggy seashores of the Black. Caspian and Azov Seas and fed upon the giant sturgeon that once populated the waterways. Today Crimean black dragons in the wild are extremely rare as their diet of sturgeon and

tl imean peninsula has been one of the most bitterly over pieces of geography in history, from the Greeks Romans to the Ottoman lurks. In 1854, the Crimean War between the Russians and the French ravaged the area, in WWII Crimea was sought after by both the Russians and the Germans. Both

Wartime Propaganda Soviet-era propaganda poster featuring the Crimean dragon. Courtesy of the Simferopol Historical Society. Simferopol Dracodrome 1960s U2 photograph of the Simferopol Dracodrome. Courtesy of the United States Army.,драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые картинки

Black Dragon on a painting of the Crimean dragon requires ging together all of my field sketches and notes into a illustration. To begin, I catalogue all the elements that dragon embodies: Aerodynamic body Black markings Rugged Crimean landscape Create a Thumbnail Sketch Working from my

3 Continue Rendering the Sketch Drawing and painting is not a stepty-step process, but rather an evolution. The painting grows and changes as you work. I do not have a fully formed image in my head of the finished drawing when I begin work. Think of your work like a lump of clay that can be

TUTORIAL: PERSPECTIVE Perspective is the artistic illusion of making objects appear to recede into the distance. There are essentially three kinds of perspective—linear perspective, atmospheric perspective and foreshortening. In painting the Crimean black dragon, I combined all three techniques

5 Continue Developing Background Details Continue refining the background elements until the necessary detail has been achieved. It is much easier to work out these details now than having to alter the painting at a later stage. 6 Set the Base Color Once you're satisfied with the rendering,

8 Establish Shadows Add a 50% opacity Multiply mode layer over this to create a quick shadow layer to help unify the lighting and form. 9 Refine Background Elements Working on the background in a new 100% opacity Normal layer, render the green details of the shore and light tones of the castle,

Ю Refine the Focal Point Refine the detail and contrast of the focal point: the dragon's face. Even in this tight fragment the use of all three perspective tools is apparent. The final rendering of the dragon takes time and patience. Here the paint brushes become very small and the paint becomes

Chinese Dragon & Dracorexus cathidaeus Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/ D.cath idaeus Size: 50 (15m) Wingspan: 100' (30m) Weight: 1.0.000 lbs (4,550kg) Recognition: Broad narrow wing with only one elongated supra-metacarpal; yellow-gold markings vary by

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ese Expedition We, however, were not headed for the rural mountains of China; we went directly into one of the most polluted areas of the world, the Bohai Economic Rim, perhaps the largest industrial center on the planet. The Bohai is estimated to be home to over 100 million humans—more than the

Quinhuangdao Kvn i Dalian Dragon Kork Longkou VC'cihai Yantai Shunghj BO IIA 1 DRAGON SANCTUARY M I Ö $ K ( IN A ItijiiiMt Dandong Beijing Rohm S cj 1 cl low Sect £ c»<*a\ ngdao Russia Mongolia ■Bf China (Wit, 111 U,драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые

food, the Chinese yellow dragon is known to soar for days, ranging far from its lair in the search for food. Its massive glider wings enable the dragon to achieve astounding altitudes, soaring on the Pacific jet stream as high as 25,000 feet (7,600m) and reachingas far as the Hawaiian Islands.

Mane and Facial Features The distinctive mane of the Chinese yellow dragon is thought to be used as a courtship charm. The thick mane, a mixture of fur and elongated scales, grows more ornate and full on the males as they get older. The nasal horn, unique to the males, also grows more prominent

a lush and beautiful land, the Bohai Sea is now completely dead, destroyed by pollution and overpopulation. With an active oil drilling industry in the Bohai and Yellow Seas adding to the environ-atal impact, the Chinese yellow dragons food source been depleted for nearly 50 years. The Chinese

Traveling in the Bohai Sanctuary Access to Tong Long Huo is limited to charted tours aboard boats like this one. Fortunately, we were granted special access by the Bohai Dragon Sanctuary. Tong Long Huo In 2003, Tong Long Huo became the first living creature to became a World Heritage Site. The

History The dragons of Asia, and specifically China, have been linked to cultural, national and religious identity since recorded history. Nowhere else in the world is the dragon treated with such universal reverence. In parts of China the people sometimes even refer to themselves as “the i

 Yellow Dragon Head Variations There are more than 30 documented species of yellow dragons on the Asian continent and adjoining islands. As you can see from these different heads, yellow dragon depictions vary greatly. Chinese Statue Dragons represent good fortune and statues like this one are

DEMONSTRATION Chinese Yellow Dragon 1 Develop Thumbnail Sketches . Sketch the Chinese yellow dragon in various poses to find a design that will best demonstrate its unique attributes. accumulated during my expedition to China. Using these sketches as my guidelines I can begin to create an

3 Carve the Shapes Use an Eraser tool or white paint to cut hack into shapes, moving back and forth with positive and negative spaces until you are satisfied with the composition. 2 Establish the Underpainting in a new layer at 100% opacity. Multiply mode, use a variety of texture brushes and a

Digital Painting Desktop ► This is an example of how I display all the windows that I use most frequently. I prefer to keep my palette and toolboxes on my left, a habit of being left-handed and also a traditional painter for so many years. All of the layers are named so I can keep track of them.

5 Create Local Color Create a new layer and begin establishing the semiopaque local color. In traditional painting, this would be a color wash. Digitally. this can be achieved by toggling the layer opacity. 41,драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые картинки

and Layers TUTORIAL: DIGITAL PAINTING WITH MODES With the layering feature, you can paint each stage of a painting on its own layer (like an acetate overlay sheet), then control each layer independently. In Photoshop, create a new layer by choosing Layer menu > New to set each layer to any of

Tutorial: Opacity and modes Overlaying different parts of the painting using layer image. Scan an interesting texture and experiment opacity and layer mode can dramatically alter your with opacity and modes in Photoshop. Step A I begin by importing a grayscale scan of texture from my texture

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7 Add the Finishing Touches In the final stage of the painting, add finishing touches to the focal point—the head shooting fire. Thin opaque brushstrokes using strong contrasts and rich colors help tighten the rendenng.,драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые картинки

SPECIFICATIONS Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/D. klallaminus Wingspan: 85' (26m) Weight: 20.000 lbs. (9000kg) Recognition: Mottled brown and tan markings: broad face with short muzzle: twin forked tail Habitat: Northwestern North American coastal regions

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Expedition eparting China for the final leg of our expedition, Con-ceil and I arrived safely in Seattle to complete our circum-of the globe in search of dragons. From Seattle, nceil and I continued our trek by traveling onward to the city of Port Angeles on the border of Olympic National Park and

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Elwah brown dragon is one of the most distinctive of the Dracorexidae family. 'I he broad face and muzzle that give the dragon its uncanny resemblance an owl has the same function as its avian relative. The broad cone of the dragons face acts as a sound amplifier focusing subtle noise into the

Elwah Brown Dragon Egg, 12" (30cm) Elwah Brown Dragon Hatchlings A clutch of Elwah brown dragon eggs usually consists of 2 to 6 hatchlings. Elwah Brown Dragon Skull The skull of the Elwah brown dragon shows the large cranial and olfactory spaces that allow the dragon to hunt in the thick fog

untouched Pacific coast ol I? as far south as: OR The Klwah brown dragon is the newest of the Great Dragon ecies to be discovered and studied by western naturalists, owed the brown dragon to remain relatively by human interference for most of its history, ating a very healthy habitat for the

 Elwah Brown Dragon Nest The Elwah brown dragon is a social animal. Like its avian cousins, it will care for its young until they are old enough to leave the lair. Here a male has brought a harbor seal to a dragonlmg born earlier that spring. Elwah Brown Dragon Territory Like other Great

History Although the Elwah brown dragon has been known by the Native American tribes of the Pacific Northwest for millennia, the first European account of the brown dragon took place in 1778. Captain Cooks third circumnavigation of the world brought his ship HMS Resolution to Vancouver Island for

Elwah Pottery, circa 18th Century Reconstruction of a brown dragon depicted on Native American pottery. Courtesy of the Ehvah Dragon Sanctuary Research Center. The Elwah Brown Dragon Dance The Elwah Dragon Sanctuary Research Center features traditional brown dragon dances. TrtJurf to

 DRAGON 1 Create a Thumbnail Sketch Create a series of thumbnail sketches to help you settle on the pose and features you want to include in your piece. This is an important part of the planning process, so don’t overlook it. from our expedition, I begin a new painting of Elwah brown dragon

 2 Complete Preliminary Value Sketch For this painting, I decided to take one of the sketches that I did in the field as my design. Using a flatbed scanner I imported the drawing into a new grayscale Photoshop file: File > Import > Select > Scanner. Using broad flat brushes, l roughed in the

TUTORIAL: CREATING TEXT ~ Texture is an artistic term that ranges across all the disciplines and creative pursuits. Whether discussing the texture of a piece of music, sculpture, food or even landscape design, texture is a tangible, tactile quality that gives a work its dimension. Whether you

 3Tone and Texture After altering the landscape design to include a small Elwah hatchling. I begin considering my colors. Changing the image mode to RGB. I use color balance to shift from black and white to warm browns. Since this image will be almost monochromatic. I try to concentrate on the

it 4 Develop the Background and Facial Features Developing the image with a limited color palette forces me to rely on brush textures and contrast. Subtle tones of brown differentiate the forms. Cool browns with hints of blue define the stone, green-hued tones define the trees, while the dragon

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Dragon Taxonomic Chart PENNADRACOFORME (Feathered Dragon!:) ORCADRACOFORME (Marine Dragons) - QUETZECOATYLIDAE DRACIMEXIDAE (Coatyls) CETUSIDAE (Feydragons) (Sea Lions) WYVERIDAE DRAGONIGUILLIDAE (Wyverns) (Sea Serpents) VOLUCRISIDAE (Dragonettes) AMPHIPTERIDAE (Amphitere)

CLASS ORDER * FAMILY GENUS SPECIES,драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые картинки

Dragon Anatomy All eight species of Great Dragons within the family Draco-rexidae have a similar anatomy. This is what defines them as a group. All the species have six limbs, hollow bones, binocular vision and an elongated tail. First classified in the v Systcma Naturae in 1735 by Carl Linnaeus.

Dragon Foot The dragon claws serve multiple functions: grappling prey, teanng. as well as agile climbing along the cliffs of its home. Dragon Eye All Great Dragons possess powerful eyesight that functions both penpherally and bmocularty. Their eyes are small, and bony ridges above and below the

Appendix 3 Dragon Flight A mystery that has surrounded Great Dragons for centuries has always been their ability to fly. How such a massive creature is able to become airborne mystified scientists and biologists until the 18th century when dragon llight was studied and understood. Some early

in order to create velocity. This practice is also seen in large species of birds like the albatross. Most of the Great Dragons will stay grounded during periods of low wind. Dragons never allow themselves to land in low country or heavily forested regions where the winds and/or their wingspan

Dragon Poses To better understand dragon art and to portray dragons realistically, it is necessary to understand the fundamental poses of dragons. Established for use in heraldry during the medieval period, there are eight standard poses that art referred to throughout this book. They are as

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NORGE CHINA INDIA rsiu*UW WDPF World Protect i V C=’ *° A A FI. iICA «♦«HaN, ^^-—-Ss i ~T i,драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые картинки

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Composition: A general term regarding the arrangement of forms and elements in an artistic work. Contrast: The juxtaposition of opposing qualities in elements (e.g., black vs. white, rough vs. smooth, straight vs. curved, blue vs. orange). Countershading: The transitioning of an object's value

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INDEX Acadia. 14-15 . Acadian green dragon. 12-13 • behavior. 18-19 ' . biolog>’. 16-17 demonstration. 22-27 flying displays. 19 habitat. 18 ! history. 20-21 , ' mating dances. 19 names. 13 plumage. 17 range of. 14 sleeping pose. 19 Adobe Photoshop. 10.25,39,122. See afso Brushes, digital:

Lighting effects, 71-72 Liguria, 78-79,82 Ligurian gray dragon, 76-77 behavior. 82-83 biology, 80-81 demonstration. 86-91 frills, face and neck. 80,85 history. 84-85 names. 76 sunbathing. 83 teeth. 83 wings. 81 Lines directional. 56 working with. 24 Materials, for drawing, 8-9 Medieval stave

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Photo by Conceil Delacroix Dracopedia The Great Dragons. Copyright 2012 by William O’Connor. Manufactured in China. All rights reserved. No part ofthis book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means including information storage and retrieval systems without

Ideas. Instruction. Inspiration Visit impact-books.com/greatdragons for awesome FREE bonus materials from Dracopedia author William O'Connor! IMPACT-BOOKS.COM Connect with your favorite artists Get the latest in comic, fantasy and sci-fi art instruction, tips and techniques Be the first to

ACADIAN GREEN DRAGON Dracorexus acadius,драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые картинки

SCANDINAVIAN BLUE DRAGON Dracorexus sotijenjjorclus CELANDIC I IT E DRAGON trexus reykjavikus LIGURIAN GRAY DRAGON Dracorexus ligurius WELSH RED DRAGON Dracorexus idraigoxus DRAGONS OF THE WORLD,драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые картинки

ID CRIMEAN BLACK ' A DRAGON Dracorexus crimeus CHINESE YELLOW DRAGON Dracorexus cathidaeus,драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые картинки

 , ' I An artists Field Guide to the world’s Great Dragons! CREATURES OF GREAT BEAUTY and terrible ferocity, dragons have been feared and revered for centuries. Of the thousand-plus species still in existence, none have inspired more folklore and artistic awe than the eight species of Great


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 DRAC0P6DIA rr Hi c DRAGONS An Artist's Fielt> Guibe anD draining Journal William O'Connor IMPACT CcsC^NATl Cfi>0 www. i mpact-books.com
Introduction 6 Drawing Materials 8 Digital Painting Tools 10 Acadian Dragon Dracorextis acadius Great Dragon of the rugged Maine seacoast 12 Icelandic Dragon Dracorexus reykjavikus Great Dragon of the frozen north 28 Scandinavian dragon Dracorexus songenjjordus Cobalt and azure-scaled dragon of the northern fjords 44 WELSH DRAGON Dracorexus idraigoxus Legendary dragon of European folklore and legend 60 Ligurian Dragon Dracorexus cinqaterrus Rarest and most beautiful of the Great Dragons 76 Crimean Dragon Dracorexus crimeaus Great Dragon of the black Sea and Eastern Europe 92
Chinese dragon Dracorexus cathidaeus Majestic dragon king of Asia and the Yellow Sea elwah dragon Dracorexus klallaminus Majestic dragon god of the Pacific Northwest Appendix 1: Dragon Taxonomic Chart 142 Appendix 2: Dragon Anatomy Appendix 3: Dragon Flight 146 Appendix 4: Dragon Poses HiAl NolC' Glossary 154 Index About the Author 159 i*"
IntrodutMU] CaKceU To help me on my journey 1 recruited the aid of my faithful apprentice, Conceil Delacroix, whom 1 met while he was studying art history at the College of New York. For several years Conceil has been a great help in my studio in New York. Fluent in English. French and Italian, Conceil will be a priceless resource in my transcontinental journey. We have packed our many supplies for the World Dragon Expedition, and soon depart New York for one year. Together we set off for the dragon adventure ot our lives! f WARNING FOR DRAGON ENTHUSIASTS f Dragons are not pets. The expeditions and adventures described in this book have been performed under the guidance of trained observers, experts and draconologists. The author encourages all readers to be forewarned that dragons are extremely dangerous and unpredictable animals that should never be approached or harassed. Severe injury and death may be inflicted by these animals in their natural habitats. Dragons are predatory wild animals. Intrusion into their nesting grounds, threatening of their young and startling behavior are all natural catalysts for dragon attacks. They are merely acting upon their instincts. 6 -J#_
^»weoaggooooeQaiegciy/xcacc^caaa^^ INTRODUCTION . i There are over one thousand species of dragons living on all seven continents and in each of the four oceans of the world. Most of us have seen many of these animals in zoological gardens or nature museums, and some of you may even keep some small domestic species in your home. But no animal in the world has inspired more folklore and stimulation to the human imagination than the eight species of Great Dragons. The eight known species are the largest members of the Draco order of all animals existing within the family Dracorexidae; they collectively make up the genus of Dracorexus. The common biology to all the species is that they have six limbs (four legs and two wings), are capable of aerial and terrestrial locomotion, possess hollow bone structure, lay eggs and arc capable of breathing fire. In short, they are the fire-breathing dragons of legend, except that they arc not a myth. In every culture there is a tradition of a great fire-breathing dragon. From the beginning of time the eight Great Dragon species have not only inspired our imagination but helped form the very cultures with which they coexist. Perhaps because humans and dragons inhabit the same regions that the evolution of human history is intertwined so inexorably with that of the dragons. Several years ago I decided to seek out these amazing creatures for myself, an expedition that had never before been undertaken by any naturalist artist. I aimed to circumnavigate the world in order to draw from life and observe the Great Dragons in their natural environment, all the while meeting with and engaging with the societies and cultures that had for so long lived alongside these amazing monsters. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK Dracopedia, Vie Great Dragons serves two primary functions. First, as a field guide to understanding these majestic creatures and gaining a better understanding of the varied and textural societies that have coexisted with them for millennia. Second, as an artists handbook on some of the fundamental artistic skills that should be explored to better create the art of dragons. I hope that everyone with a love of dragons—whether zoological, historical, cultural or artistic—finds something useful and inspiring within these pages.
NG MATERIALS: WORKING IN THE FIELD When working as an artist in the field, weight is of paramount importance. Everything you need will have to he :ed in as there are no art supply stores in the back country. Here’s a checklist of typical gear Conceil and I will carrying on the expedition: □ Sketchbook (9" x 12" [23cm x 30cm] that fits easily into a backpack). I prefer spiral-bound because they will lie fiat on the scanner when 1 get back to the studio □ Pencils and erasers □ Binoculars □ Topographical trail map □ Walking stick Photo Reference A camera is a very important tool as well, in order to get detailed reference of the environments you are exploring. Watercolor Paper The style of paper surface you choose will affect the look of your work. A very smooth paper like vellum will allow you to achieve highly detailed effects, while coarse paper will result in more textured effects. For drawing l suggest using a paper with a heavy weight (or poundage). This number indicates the weight of 500 sheets of 20" x 26” (51cm x 66cm) paper. The higher the poundage, the heavier the paper. Drawing paper is usually 50 to 100 pounds (105gsm to 210gsm). The size of your paper is also important. Try to work as targe as you can. For sketching. 9" x 12" (23cm x 30cm) should be a minimum, while finished drawings should be at least 14" x 18“ (36cm x 46cm)
Overhand Grip This grip is a common way to hold the pencil white sketching and is good for shading. Hold the pencil in a way that Is most comfortable for you. Clutch Pencil and Lead Holder When traveling this is my drafting tool of choice, usually consisting of metal casing with a claw at one end for holding a 2mm pencil lead. For decades this has been the standard for drafting and professional drawing. I have never needed to replace mine in 20 years of heavy use traveling around the world. Although less expensive plastic models available, buy a good all-metal one and you'll have It for the rest life. The required lead sharpener for this item is an additional but it creates a flawlessly sharp tip to any lead loaded into When traveling, this pencil can be difficult to find replacement leads outside of an art supply shop, so bring extras. The weight of lead denotes a pencil s hardness or softness, with as the softest and 6H as the hardest. The softer the lead, the darker the marks the pencil can make. An excellent medium for rendering used throughout this book is the combination of black and white chalk on toned paper. The great attrac tion of these materials is the ability to render form and volume quickly and effectively. Chalk comes in a variety of forms and colors including earth tone shades. The brown paper I like to use is simple packing paper that can be bought in rolls very inexpensively in drug stores or office supply shops. It is durable and can be cut to custom sizes. This is a highly recommended medium for students to practice with.
Digital Painting TOOLS Today there is a wide variety of tools available to the digital painter. Adobe* Photoshop' and Corel“ Painter " are the most commonly used and available combined with either a tablet or a tablet monitor as well as a keyboard and mouse. Setting yourself up with the tools necessary' to begin digital painting is far less expensive in the long run than traditional art mediums. As I often explain to my students on the first day of digital painting class, the stylus is the last piece of art supply you will ever need to purchase. Inside that little pen is every brush in the world, every pencil, every tube of paint and every piece of paper you will ever need. You can paint for days and months on end and never need to wash a brush, scrape a palette or sharpen a pencil. You will never run out of a color or need to run to the store for something you forgot. COMPUTER AND SOFTWARE This is really a personal choice. I use an Apple, as this is the art industry standard. The biggest you can afford is ideal, but remember that whatever you buy will become obsolete in about 36 months, so calculate that into your budget. Adobe Photoshop is my personal choice of software, although I do use Corel Painter occasionally. Unless stated otherwise, all references in this book are to Photoshop. Please be sure to purchase a full version of any software, and most importantly, never pirate a copy of software. Not only is it illegal, it’s unprofessional. If cost is a concern, purchase an older version of software and then upgrade in the future. My Studio Mien heading home from an excursion it is essential for every artist to have a studio. Even if you have very little room, try to dedicate a private space as your own where you can create. Every studio is different and every studio is customized for the needs of each artist. I have had many studios in my career, and all of them have been unique for my work at the time. I do not require as much space for my oil paintings and reference books as I used to. Now. the focal point of my studio is my computer and my top priority a comfortable and creative working environment. Without concern of paint splatter or turpentine spills and with my picture reference, music library and painting catalog now digitized, it is more study than studio. My workshop where I oil paint and sculpt is a separate workspace. 10
Tablet and Stylus Tablets range in size and go up exponentially in price as they go up in size. I use a medium-sized tablet since it fits comfortably onto my tablet easel. Today there are tablet-screens, but for me they have not become cost effective yet. Notice that I have the tablet propped up on a stand. This makes for a much more comfortable and natural painting position without having to slouch over the desk. KEYBOARD AND MOUSE I have a 12 year old keyboard that I love. It makes a great clack-clack noise and has survived years of brutal punishment. My keyboard is set up to my right because I am left-handed. This allows me to keystroke and paint at the same time. Printer and Scanner Buy the largest printer and llatbed scanner you can afford. Prints of your digital imagery will only be as good as your paper and printer. Make sure to calculate ink costs before investing. A good scanner is recommended for scanning your drawings, paintings, textures and found objects. Other Important Tools Always keep a sketchbook and don’t leave home without it. Document everything and don’t throw anything away. As you can see, I keep a dream wall above my computer and a bulletin board to my right so I am always surrounded with inspirational work and notes from my travels and by artist colleagues. Outside my studio is a comfy chair. Its the one constant in every studio I have ever had. This is where the real work gets done. 11 XSOQCOCOOCCCCCXMCOeOOOCXN

X. SPECIFICATIONS Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/D.Acadius Size: 50' to 75' (15m to 23m) Wingspan: 85' (26m) Weight: 17.000 lbs. (7700kg) Recognition: Bright green markings, feathered frill plumage, nasal and chin horns on males: pale green and yellow markings and no horns on females Habitat: Northeastern North Amenca coastal regions Conservation status: Endan gered Also known as: Green dragon. American dragon. Skogeso dragon. Groendraak
 Acadian Expedition Before leaving on our expedition to see Acadian green dragons in the wild, Conceil and 1 made a stop to see the country’s most famous dragon in captivity, Phineus. Fort Tryon Park Zoo in upper Manhattan is home to Phineus, a 140 year old Acadian green dragon that has lived in New York for over a century. In 1857, P.T. Barnum acquired four Acadian green dragon hatchlings, which he placed in his American Museum in New York. When the museum burned down in 1865, two of the small dragons were killed. The remaining dragons were taken on tour with Barnum for over a decade on the P.T. Barnum Grand Traveling Museum and Menagerie. In 1888, Barnum donated one of the dragons to the London Zoo, but it then quickly got sick and died in 1889. I he last dragon was donated to the New York Zoo in 1891 upon Barnums death and named Phineus in honor of its benefactor. A beautiful Victorian dragon house was built for Phineus and he quickly became the central attraction. By the 1960s, however, the New York Zoo, the dragon house and Phineus the Dragon W OP F lluxbor Vermont Humpshi Habitat of the Acadian Green Dragon' Massachusetts t*rvscnl R: Arlan tic Ocean Range of the Acadian Dragon
The WlndDragon Our home for the Acadian expedition was a one masted sailboat, the WindDragon. This 19th century sloop allowed us to navigate around the archipelago of Acadia National Dragon Preserve to observe and draw the dragons that live there. Phineus, who had been living in a small cramped concrete pit for over 70 years, were all in bad repair. In 1972, the newly formed World Dragon Fund used Phineus as their poster dragon to raise funds for the protection of dragons. In 1978, a new dragon enclosure was built for Phineus, and his health and attendance at the park dramatically improved. Today, Phineus is the only great dragon alive in captivity in America. After our visit, Conceil and I departed New York for our first destination on our journey of the World’s Great Dragons—Bar Harbor, Maine. This is home to the Acadia National Dragon Preserve, a large stretch of coastal land protected for the Acadian dragon to use as its nesting grounds. From New York City we travel to Boston and then on to Mt. Desert Island where we will spend a couple of weeks traveling with Captain Avery Winslow of the sloop WindDragon. He will be our guide while wre study and draw the dragons of this region. 15
11" I begins looking for a new lair where he begins a family of his own. Green dragons are extremely long lived, with the oldest specimen, Mowhak, having been first reported in 1768. The hibernation habits of the Acadian green dragon contribute to its longevity. It is believed that a dragon may sleep more than two-thirds of its life, slowing its metabolism for months. Older dragons can enter a kind of torpor and can last years without eating. A mature Acadian green dragon male can weigh up to 17,000 pounds (7700kg) and needs to eat over 150 pounds (70kg) of meat per day. The primary food for the Acadian green dragon is small whales and porpoises, while larger dragons have been known to catch and carry off full-grown killer whales. The Acadian green dragon is the largest dragon species in North America, growing up to 75’ (23m) in length with a wingspan over 85' (26m). The eggs are hatched by the female only once every five years in small clutches of one to three eggs. The female and male live together in a lair on the seashore where the male hunts for food in the ocean while the female guards the lair and her young from predators. The high sea cliffs that are the common home to all the Great Dragon species of the world provide many advantages. The high windswept perch enables the dragons to take flight easily, with the dragonlings only learning to fly in their third year. The remote cave rookeries or lairs allow protection for the nearly defenseless dragonlings until they learn to fly. The male dragonling then leaves the cave and
Acadian Green Dragon Plumage The Acadian green dragon is one of the few Great Dragon species that has feathers. The male produces bright display plumage to attract females. The nasal bom grows brighter red during mating season. Tite female dragon has dull, mottled colors to camouflage herself. Acadian Green Dragon Male Overhead. Wingspan 85' (26m) Acadian Green Dragon Female Overhead. Wingspan 85' (26m) Acadian Green Dragon Egg. 18" (46cm) Acadian females can lay up to three eggs at a time once every five years.
Behavior The Acadian green dragon, like its other Great Dragon cousins, makes its habitat along rocky shorelines. The mary diet of the Acadian is the prolific whales and cetaceans of the North Atlantic Ocean, especially killer and t whales that migrate to the southern waters in the fall, male builds a nest in a rocky cave or outcropping overlooking the sea and begins a complicated mating the late summer. 18
 Mating Dances The dragons of Acadia put on dramatic mating dances using complex songs and wing displays. At night their fire light illuminates the sty. Overlooking Shores A large male surveying his terntory. Males fluff their feathered frills and make elaborate throaty songs that echo across the inlets and bays. Flying Displays During the mating season Acadian green dragons often fly in pairs showing off for one another. This young bull circled an uninterested female for an hour before she finally sent him away with a puff of fire breath.
History The first recorded account of a green dragon was in 1602 when English explorer Bartholomew Gosnold, while mapping New England, reported sighting “a large dragon species inhabiting many of the harborsIt is under stood that dragons had lived for millennia along the New England coast line of North America ranging as far north as Newfoundland and as far south as the Hudson River Valley. The Penobscot tribe of Maine referred to the green dragon as Skogeso, and the early Dutch settlers in New York named the dragon Groendraak. Early colonists found the dragons to be abundant, and there are accounts by early whalers that the green dragon would often swoop down and take captured whales right off their harpoons. Despite these encounters, the green dragon became a source of pride for early Americans and was often used as a standard during the revolution for strength and independence. Bunker Hill overlooking Boston had at one time been the site of a dragon lair. Benjamin Franklin proposed that the green dragon become the national emblem, but it lost out to the bald eagle. In the 19th century the whaling and fishing industries decimated the food fish and whale stocks causing the dragon population to decrease dramatically. The industrialization of many seashore cities like Boston, Portsmouth and Newr Haven also destroyed much of the nesting grounds of the green dragon. By World War 11, there were fewer than 100 green dragons still living, and many biologists feared its extinction. In 1972 the World Dragon Fund and the Green Dragon Trust were founded to help raise awareness of the dire situation of the green dragon. In 1993 the Federal Park Service opened Acadia National Dragon Preserve in Maine, a protected dragon marine sanctuary adjacent to Acadia National Park. Since then, other shorelines have become dragon preserves, but inside the Acadia Preserve the green dragon has been able to flourish. Today, with similar controls on whaling, the green dragons numbers have improved. 19th Century Dragoners Harpoon Captain Avery explained that during the 19th century, whalers were often confronted with dragons stealing their precious catches, in response, dragon hunting became an important aspect of the whaling trade. Courtesy of the New England Dracono-IcgicaJ Society.
7foe Green. Mwwvtaut Lodge Captain Winslow has been a fountain of information regarding the history of the Acadian green dragon. We have spent many hours cruising the beautiful islands being regaled by his stories. He tells us that at one time Cadillac Mountain, which stands about 1,500‘ (457m) over Mount Desert Island, was called the Green Mountain because of all the Acadian green dragons that made their nests at its peak. Its summit became a popular tourist destination for Victorians to come and view the dragons. Eventually, a grand lodge known as the Green Mountain Hotel was built on top of the summit. In 1895, the hotel burned to the ground. No one has ever attempted to build on top of the peak since. DONT TREAD ON ME Symbolic Value Used as a standard of freedom, the Acadian green dragon has been a symbol of America since its founding. Courtesy of the New England Draconological Institute. Boston. An Acadian Tavern During the American Revolution, the American dragon was a symbol of strength and freedom. The Green Dragon Tavern in Boston is called “The Headquarters of the Revolution" and was where the Boston Tea Party was planned. J.R.R. Tolkein placed a tavern called the Green Dragon in Bywater outside of Hob-biton in his legendary Lord of the Rings books. An Acadian Glyph An early Native American petroglyph of an Acadian green dragon, circa 1400 a.d. Courtesy of the New England Draconological Institute. Boston.
DEMONSTRATION Acadian Green Dragon Back in my studio, I begin to plan a large-scale painting of the Acadian green dragon. 1 start by going through the dozens of sketches and studies 1 executed on Mt. Desert Island. I then sketch a rough design to establish a basic balanced composition that will capture the grandeur of the i Acadian green dragon. My goal is to include these qualities learned in previous studies: • Green markings • Maritime environment • Feathered rutile on crown 1 Complete a Thumbnail Sketch Begin with several thumbnail sketches to establish composition. forms and proportions. Be fluid and experimental at this stage since almost all of this work will be covered by subsequent work. Remember that drawing is a process, not a stepby-step science. In this example, I pictured the dragon standing haughtily on the precipice like a lion, and attempted to capture that proud body language. 22
2 Do a Final Drawing Once you've established the basic silhouette and forms of the design, flesh out the details of the dragon and add other elements of interest to finalize your composition. It's here that the anatomy studies done on location in Marne come in handy. In my initial design I had made some anatomical changes that needed to be remedied. I want to emphasize that changes are normal. It's part of the process of drawing. One of the things that I find discourages students is that they get frustrated when an image doesn't work on the first try. Don't give up. As an artist, you will always make many alterations and changes to your images before you're satisfied with the results. 3 Adjust the Anatomy and Pose As I developed the drawing, I made corrections to the dragon’s anatomy and pose. I adjusted the shape of the head by adding a new layer, then drawing on top of my initial work. I also added a second dragon in the background and a killer whale carcass at the bottom of the dragon's feet.
 TUTORIAL: DRAWING BASICS The pencil is no doubt the first and the most important drawing implement the artist can employ, especially when young and first learning. While in Maine studying dragons, Conceil, my apprentice, was fascinated by this simple tool and asked me to show him a few of the basic ways of using it. Here are a few of the demonstrations I made in my sketchbook to show Conceil how to use a pencil, as well as a few of Conceil s experiments. When you finish with the tutorial, look at the final digital render ing of the painting to see if you can spot these techniques being employed. Hatch marks are a common drawing device used in many mediums. Remember to contour your marks to enhance the form _ of an object. Here is straight hatching as opposed to directional hatching. pencil in a very particular way to avoid smearing lead across the page. As you can see in this illustration of Conceil's hand, this ho»d is very limited in its movement. The hand and fingers move very little and the tip of the pencil is tightly controlled, while the back of the pencil does most of the moving. This is excel lent for making short, scratchy hatch marks, especially when working with a pen. % i Hold B In contrast, if you move your handhold to a longer drawing form, the tip of the pencil can sweep in long arcs, pivoting on the wrist or even the arm. Also, the weight of the whole hand Is not pressing down on the tip: rather, the weight is on the heel of your hand with onty the weight of the pencil itself pressing down on the paper. The effect is much more expressive and creates more delicate marks, with far fewer broken pencil tips. Experimenting With Lines Working with line is a drawing tradition that goes back to the great masters. Dürer, da Vinci. Michelangelo and Rembrandt all used lines to sketch their ideas on paper. Here are a few of the marks I use when drawing. Experiment and find line marks of your own. Gradation This simple gradation exercise is a perfect warmup to learning control of the medium. Try to see how lightly you can hold the pencil, and then try to make the penciling as dark as possible. I
5 Establish the Underpainting Create a new layer in 50% opacity Normal mode. Rough in the color palette, giving each object a generalized local color, then work on the interrelation of the orange sunlight filtering through the translucent green wing. 4 Set Base Color Transform your sketch from the grayscale to RGB mode file in Photoshop and shift the tone to a shade of green, the dominant color of the composition.
6 Lay In Shadows Lay down a 50% opacity Multiply mode layer and establish shadows to help unify the dark forms. Refine the Background Begin refining the background elements. To keep these forms in the background, use low chroma and contrast and generalize the details. This helps establish the atmospheric perspective. I used opaque paint to bring the tail forward and separate it from the ispck. Mo form in this stage should have a darker value than anything in the foreground. 26
8 Add the Foreground Details and Finishing Touches Render the details on the dragon. At this stage colors become more saturated, brushes become more opaque, the contrasts increase and the brushes get smaller. Note that as the yellow light passes through the green wing, a saturated yellow-green is formed. Your patience will be rewarded. Keep painting with more detail until you are satisfied with the results.
Dracorexus reykjavikus SPECIFICATIONS Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/ D. reykj aviku s Size: 50' to 75' (15m to 23m) Wingspan: 85 (26m) Weight: 20.000 lbs. (9000kg) Recognition: Markings range from pure white to mottled brown, depending on the season: broad horizontal cranial horns: delta wings: pronounced upward beak: females duller and more mottled in color Habitat: North Atlantic coastal regions Also known as: White dragon, polar dragon

Icelandic Expedition Conceil and I arrived in Reykjavik, Iceland, to continue our adventure drawing the Great Dragons of the world and study the great Icelandic w'hite dragon. We were met by our Icelandic dragon guide Sigurd Nitlheim who is both a professor at the Icelandic Museum of Natural History in Reykjavik, as well as the senior director of the Sniefellsnes Dragon Sanctuary. We could not have asked for a better guide. Director Nitlheim has supplied us with invaluable information about the Icelandic dragon that will be most helpful during our adventures here in Iceland. We will spend several days at the museum in Reykjavik studying the biology of the Icelandic dragon, then travel to the dragon sanctuary to observe the dragons in the wild. Our Tour Guide, Sigurd Niflheim »vn'jumKiOU'is !»1l» Dragon's Breath In the summer native Icelandic wildfiowers carpet the mountainsides with clouds of white blossoms. 30
0«ä ¿fetykiti Olafsvik ICELAND Reykjavik
Biology Ranging as far north as Greenland, as far west as Prince Edward Island, Canada, and as far southeast as the Orkney Islands in Scotland, the Icelandic white dragon has been known to come into contact with the Acadian, Welsh and Scandinavian dragons. The most famous encounter, of course, being with the Welsh dragon of Britain accounted in the Mabinogion. The range of all four dragons overlaps in the Faroe Islands in the North Sea. Icelandic White Dragon in Profile, 75' (23m) Icelandic White Dragon Summer Overhead. Wingspan 85’ (26m) Icelandic White Dragon Winter Overhead Color and Marking Variations • I've noticed a great range of markings of individuals amongst the dragons of Ice-; ‘land. The wing markings of each specimen make them easily identifiable. Our guide. f., Sigurd Niflheim, informs us that of all the other Great Dragon species, the Icelandic white dragon's color and markings vary the greatest throughout the seasons. • Although there is a color variation between male and female, as in all dragons, jvf the white dragon will actually alter color from spring to winter, not unlike the arctic fox. The common eruption of Icelandic volcanoes dramatically alters the dragon s nj. ¿bmoutlage. Niflheim also claims that dragons he has tracked for years have been ¡V known to change in a single season after an eruption. 32

O300000P0OP&90C0CCOQ9Q0OS0P0PQP3000000COSO3O5CCOPa3O3O9SGOCCCOPP000Qg»SO0000CCO0CO0P900CO0CCg0C0O0P9CO0S»a9CipgS'aS Behavior Unlike most other Great Dragons of the world, the Icelandic white dragon is so prolific that competition for premium nesting grounds is fierce. Males often spar in the spring using their horns as weapons to duel with rival males for a coveted nesting spot. The combat can become fierce and the scars from combat are evidenced on many of the older bulls. Once a proper nesting spot or lair has been established, the Icelandic white dragon builds a nest and tries to attract a female with his prominent displays of fire, colorful neck wattle and sonorous dragon song that is so distinctive to the Icelandic white dragon. Depending upon its size, the white dragon commonly hunts the fish and cetaceans surrounding its habitat. When the dragons are young, North Atlantic tuna is a common fish food. When grown to maturity the Icelandic white dragon is able to hunt large sea mammals such as killer whales and juvenile humpback, fin and right whales. Many people have the misconception that the Icelandic dragon can breathe ice. Although they can breathe lire like all Great Dragons, the Icelandic white dragon's endothermic respiration plumes into roils of frost in the cold, leading to the error. Icelandic Habitat Iceland is a landscape of tumultuous beauty with snowcapped mountains and active volcanoes. To exist in this environment the Icelandic white dragon must be a master of survival. 34
 «#№№№№? Mating Habits The male Icelandic white dragon has a largo wattle under its chin that turns red during the mating season. As part of its display, he is able to Inflate the wattle; combined with its loud calls, fire beacons and wing displays, wtiat a dramatic sight! Soaring The Icelandic white dragon is so prolific that within the sanctuary many of them soar over head on tl>e strong North Atlantic winds. Sleeping Pose Great Dragons spend much of their lives at rest; like other large predators, they try to conserve their energy. This large male sat for hours preening with his wings spread out in the sun to warm himself. Icelandic Nests Icelandic white dragons make their nests in the glaciers and ice-covered fields of Iceland and the northern Atlantic. Our guide. Sigurd Niflheim, tells us that Icelandic white dragons are able to use their fire breath to carve caves out of the glaciers in the mountains. The brutal arctic winds of Iceland force dragons. to take shelter in the rocky crevasses of their lairs during the long winter months.
Viking Masthead, Circa 500 a.d. The Icelandic white dragon must have harassed early Viking explorers of Iceland. The Olafsvik Dragon Museum has a wonderful collection of early Icelandic objects Including this early masthead. Courtesy of the Clafsvik Dragon Museum. Ice Horn The early Nordic settlers of Iceland had a deep respect for the Great Dragons that lived on the shores. Director Nifihcim demonstrates a Viking dragon horn made from the cranial horn of the Icelandic white dragon. White Dragon Sighting At night we watch the white dragons along the Icelandic shore bellowing their dragon songs putting up dramatic fire displays. A won-to behold. White dragons are active in the for display and hunting. Whales and most active during these hours. Icelandic white dragon is one of the most famous and tfic dragons in history. At the height of its growth the ;e of the Icelandic w'hite dragon must have exceeded own food supply. By the early medieval period, there were reports of the Icelandic white dragon coming within he range of the blue and the red dragons of Europe. The most famous account is in the medieval Welsh epic the Mabinogion. In the story, a white dragon attacks a red dragon in Britain. In the end both dragons are subdued by King Lludd. It is remarkable that Icelandic white dragons may have ranged as far east and south as Wales over 500 years ago, indicating just how prolific they must have been. Over the subsequent centuries of Iceland’s colonization, the dragon numbers have diminished, but they are still the largest of the Great Dragon species.
Confrontations With Narwhals ThrouglKnjt history, the most famous of all the Icelandic white dragon's prey has been the enigmatic narwhal. Living within the extreme northern range of the Icelandic white dragon, the nar whal is one of the few animals in the world that has evolved a natural defense against dragons. For centuries the long horn of the narwhal male—which is. in fact, a tooth—was believed by Europeans to be a unicorn horn and by Inuit tnbes to hold magical properties. In the 20th century, this horn still confounded scientists, some believing it Is used as an ice pick, a hunting tool or a rutting weapon among males. Recently, however, it has been documented that the nar whal is able to use its horn defensively against a dragon aerial attack. Traveling in pods of up to 100 individuals, narwhals gather in a tight herd around the calves and females at the sight of a dragon. The adult males then form a phalanx of tusks jutting up out of the water, fending off any attacks from above. Many Icelandic white dragons bear the scars of attacking a well defended narwhal pod. SvuzfeKMiet Drcujm SMictiuwy While camping within Sna?fell-snes Dragon Sanctuary, Director Niflheim supplied Conceil and me with many evenings of fascinating stories related to the Icelandic white dragon. None were more wonderful than that of Professor Von Hardwigg. In 1864 it was reported that the professor discovered an entrance to a cave right on the mountainside of Snasfellsnes itself that would lead him deep into the depths of the earth. His adventures included many amazing and incredible stories of giant lizards and spectacular otherworldly environments. Snaefellsnes Draqon Sanctuary 37
■kt DEMONSTRATION ICELANDIC WHITE DRAGON When planning a painting of the Icelandic white dragon, itemize the qualities of the dragon that have been learned through the previous studies: • White markings • Arctic environment • Large delta wing design • Broad skull horns and dramatic upward beak Tints: White Colors ! Hues of white are also known as tints. Starting with gray in the center, many tints of white can be developed such as purples, pinks, green/yellows and pale 1 Create a Thumbnail Sketch Working with pencil and paper, rough in the dragon, establishing a basic, balanced design that will capture the grandeur of the Icelandic white dragon. The broad delta wings specific to the species are important to the design, so make them prominent. blues, as well as dark cool shadow shades. All of the colors in this palette are in the final white dragon painting. Look closely at the final painting and try to find them. Its quickly apparent that white is not really white.
2 Complete the Preliminary Computer Sketch Working with your computer, create a sketch in a Photoshop grayscale document. Refer to your thumbnail design to begin the painting. This preliminary sketch phase is for general placement of the main figure to see how it is balanced in the format. Note the use of a simplistic silhouette and skeletal design at these crucial stages. As with any medium, now is the phase to scale and position your image on the page. 39
TUTORIAL: WH ITE-ON-WHITE When working in my studio on the painting of the Icelandic white dragon, 1 was reminded of a day in Iceland. Conceit Niflheim and I were socked in on the slopes of Mt. Snaefellsjokull during a terrible snowstorm. Spending our time sketching in the shelter as the snow blew outside, Conceil presented me with a blank piece of paper. “What is this?” 1 asked. “It’s a white dragon in a snowstorm,” he said. The three of us laughed harder than we had the whole trip. But it got me thinking and working with Conceil on this problem ... what is the color of white? One of the first lessons of painting is that black, white and gray are values, not colors. Learning to perceive objects not only for their value but for their color is a skill that takes time and study. Learning to sec the color in what appears to be white takes practice. The optical reason we “see" white is that a white object reflects the most amount of light off itself and into our eye compared with the objects around it. The lightest object in value in a composition generally reads as white. For its hue, it also reflects the most amount of the color of the light source. For example, a white T-shirt in the sunlight is bright yellow, in the moonlight it's deep blue and in firelight it turns rich orange. To discover the color of white, first determine the color and quality of the light shining on it. I his color shift happens with all objects, but its most evident in white, so it is usually the first lesson. Try a white-on-white study yourself. Anything you can find around the house will do: a bowl, a white T-shirt or an egg. Set it up with a variety of lighting and try painting its color. Study A Here a warm yellow light falls across the dragon, creating purple shadows. The background Is made a deep neutral purple to help contrast the value and color of the dragon's shape. This Is my personal favorite. Here a soft coot light creates warm shadows and a brown-red background to contrast the bnght blue. While interesting, blue is not usually a natural light color, so it makes the dragon look unnatural. Study C Finally, a nighttime experiment with the dragon lit by moonlight. Atmospheric, but i monochromatic for my needs.
3Add Shading and Value Variation Gradually develop the anatomy and design of the dragon on top of your preliminary sketch. Use shading and value variation since the white-on-white palette will be fairly limited in hue. The values of the shapes and their contrasts against their adjacent shapes developed very early on. Note the forced perspective from the tail to the nose, using countershading to delineate the forms from the front to the back. A darker background is necessary for the bright wings to contrast against, but the tail Is flipped up and made darker to silhouette against the white background. The result is an undulating effect rolling into the background and enhancing the depth of field. See also how, when against the background, the wings are light, but when the tips break out beyond the cloud vignette. they become darker. 4 Refine the Details At this point, change the image size to 14" x 22" (36cm x 56cm) 300dpi grayscale so you can work on the details. It's here that the reference from all the studies done in Iceland become useful and l can begin fleshing out the dragon. Remember that reality is demonstrated in the details. Bumps and scratches from other dragons scar this specimen's horns and face. Markings seem irregular and organic: the creases of skin and scales fold around the anatomy.
cr 5 Establish Color Change your digital file mode to RGB and shift the color balance to any color you want to enhance your underpainting. 6 Continue Developing Color Work in semitransparent layers over your underpainting—also known as ébauche. This is the same whether working traditionally or digitally. Block in the basic colors of the objects to help unify the image. This is done with very loose brushwork and is a good time to bring texture into the image, whether in splattered paints, rough brush marks, or a digital picture file of texture overlaid or multiplied on top. 42
7 Render the Final Details At this point all forms of color and value relationships are established, as well as all of the compositional design elements. It is now time to render all of the details of the final painting. The palette uses rich colors, opaque paint and the finest detail brushes. Whatever medium you are using, these final small applications help to bring your dragon to life. Introduce complementary colors at the focal point to draw the viewer's eye into this area. Bright yellow and orange create a color contrast against the background's dark shades of green and purple.
 Scandinavian Dragon S Dracorexus songenjjordus 44
Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/D.songenfjordus Size: 50' to 100' (15m to 30m) Wingspan: 75' to 85* (23m to 26m) Weight: 20.000 lbs. (9080kg) Recognition: Bright blue markings on males (subtler on females); elongated snout; paddle rudder on tail; canard wing behind hip Habitat: Northern European coastal regions Also known as: Nordic dragon, blue dragon, Norwegian dragon, fjord wyrm
Scandinavian Expedition From Iceland we moved eastward on our World Dragon Expedition to Scandinavia. Conceil and I arrived safely in the city of Bergen, Norway, on our next leg of the adventure to study the great Scandinavian blue dragon. The city of Bergen is the cultural capital of Norway, containing many of the country’s finest institutions, academies and museums, including the Bergen Academy of Natural Sciences, home to the Norwegian Dragon Institute, one of the finest departments of scientific study in the world on the subject of dragons. In Bergen, Conceil and I met our host for the Norway Expedition, Dr. Bryn-hilde Freyason. She is one of Norway’s foremost experts on the Scandinavian blue dragon and agreed to allow us to accompany her for two weeks aboard the research vessel Beowulf\ while she and her team conducted an annual census of the Great Dragons living in Norway. Accommodations on the vessel were sparse, but it was a chance of a lifetime to get to study these dragons alongside some of the worlds top specialists. The Voyage KNM BEOWULF Trondheim lergen The Voyage of the KNM Beowulf Our Tour Guide. Dr. Brynhilde Freyason The crew affectionately calls her “The Dragon Lady." 46
Tagging Dragons for Research Following a dragon's movement throughout a year is important to Dr. Freyason s research. It Indicates where the most common feeding grounds are. aids in an accurate census and helps support the theory that males do the majority of the hunting while females tend to eggs and hatchlings, proving that dragons are far more social than believed. Conceil accompanied Dr. Freyason on her tagging expeditions off the Beowulf almost every day. He was very enthusiastic. Tagging Darts The darts that Dr. Freyason designed are fired from a high-powered rifle and attach to the dragon's hide. This allows the team to track the specimen's movements for up to a year using satellite tracking technology. ceocccccccceeceeeMcccec':
cetaceans, makes The Scandinavian blue dragon is a broad-ranging species down to make lairs as far south as Scotland, east into Russia, and even as far west as the Faroe Islands (thus bringing ; blue dragon into occasional contact with white and dragons). The plentiful populations of seals, porpoises whales in these areas provide ample food, allowing blue dragons to thrive along the sparsely inhabited, rugged coasts of Scandinavia. The Scandinavian blue dragon nests and lives along the rocky coasts of the Scandinavian peninsula, which includes Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The adequate ainfall, mild temperatures, high rugged cliffs overlook -the Norwegian Sea, ijords brimming with whales and and sparse human populations make this region the healthiest dragon habitat in the world. Although the Scandinavian blue dragons range is not as large as the white’s, there are more Great Dragons living along the fjords of Norway than anywhere else in the world. The stunning habitat of the Scandinavian blue dragon Norway one of the most popular dragon destinations in the world. One popular way to tour the visual splendor of Norway is the Dragon-Fjord Cruiseline, one of the most successful businesses in the country. To protect its habitat for the future from both hunting and the impact of environmental tourism, the Norwegian government has dedicated several nature preserves along the southeastern coasts and fjords as dragon preserves. Scandinavian Blue Dragon in Profile. 75' (23m) 48
 Color Variations The famous blue dragon of Norway Is not always blue. The Scandinavian dragon possesses the widest range of coloring among individuals and regions, even changing throughout the seasons. Patterns and colors on these males make identification easier for scientists. Scandinavian Blue Dragon Egg. 18" (46cm) The eggs of the Scandinavian dragon are camouflaged to blend in with the blue granite of the fjords. Scandinavian Blue Dragon Male Overhead. Wingspan 85' (26m) The male Scandinavian blue dragon has bright blue markings to allow it to both blend Into its surroundings and attract a female. Scandinavian Blue Dragon Female Overhead, Wingspan 85' (26m) Female Scandinavian dragons have more muted and mottled coloring. Rendering Anatomical Details i had the chance to sketch this dragon and many others while working with Dr. Freyason. The elegant swanlike neck of the blue dragon gives it great dexterity to hunt for fish in the fjords of Norway. Young dragons often dig for shellfish in the shallows. U
aydssfesfigfi Behavior herring. The extinction of the European wyvern in the late 19th century, combined with whale hunting controls in the late 20th century, has helped to \m, l dramatically increase the number of Scandinavian blue dragons. ki. As such, they have the highest conserva- i tion rating of i I / any Great A Dragon. I During our fortnight expedition aboard the Beowulf with Dr. Freyason and her crew, we were able to observe the behavior of the Scandinavian blue dragon in great detail. Similar to other species of Great Dragons, the blue requires a wide hunting range, isolated windswept peaks and plentiful waters to provide enough food to sustain the larger specimens of the species. A mature male Scandinavian dragon can weigh more than 10 tons (9089kg), its wingspan can reach up to 100 feet (30m) and it can consume nearly 150 lbs. (68kg) of meat per day. 'The Scandinavian, like all Great Dragons, has long periods of metabolic stasis and hibernation, requiring the hunting of food only about once a week in the summer and once a month in the winter. Older individuals may eat only once a month in summer, and sleep through the whole winter. Plentiful supplies of cetaceans in the waters off the Norwegian coast allow the dragons to hunt infrequently, catching large marine mammals that they will take back to their lairs to feed on. The Scandinavian blue dragon hunts large food fish such as North Atlantic tuna and smaller cetaceans such as pilot and killer whales, so they do not interfere with the fishing trade, which mostly nets smaller food fish like Blue Wildflowers The wildflowers that grow in the rocky northern soils of Scandinavia, along with lichen and mosses, add to the blue coloration of the landscape and help the blue dragon blend in with its environment. Scandinavian Habitat The fjords of Norway are among the most beautiful environments on the earth. Seeing the yibrant cobalt and azure blues of the cliffs, it is obvious how the Scandinavian blue dragon evolved its unique coloration.
Hunting Soaring high over the North Atlantic coast of Norway, the Scandinavian blue dragon can glide for hours searching the ocean for pods of whales and schools of fish. Fishing The long thin snout on the Scandinavian blue dragon allows it to agilely hunt fish at the water s edge. Although all great dragons are capable of this activity, only the Scandinavian has adapted tc the technique, possessing no nasal or chin horns that would impede its effectiveness.
¡wnat#.w-tew+++* * * *+++*+*++*++++* 0t randinavian blue dragon has not posed much of it to humans despite living in close proximity for •ies. The dragon has been regarded by Scandinavian es as a creature of great magic and power and was ularly revered by early Nordic and Viking cultures, the very impressive Hall of Dragons, a collection artifacts at the Bergen Academy of Natural Sciences. The Scandinavian people have revered and studied ; dragon for centuries. Blue Dragon Skull, Circa 1800 Dragon skulls have long been prized in Scandinavia and collected for their beauty and as trophies. Courtesy of the Bergen Academy of Natural Sciences. Flnial Detail Medieval Christian craftsmen placed great importance on tire imagery of dragons just as their Viking predecessors did. as evidenced by this eave finial on a church stave. As in many cultures, the dragon is revered In Scandinavia for its power and beauty. 52

DEMONSTRATION Scandinavian blue Dragon In my studio I am able to begin working on my final painting of the Scandinavian blue dragon. Referencing my journal notes and sketches, I try to develop a painting that will exhibit this beautiful animal to its best. It is helpful to itemize the features that you want to include in your painting: • Distinctive silhouette and head shapi • Vibrant Cobalt Blue markings • Dramatic fiords seascape 1 Create a Thumbnail Sketch Create a rough thumbnail of the design you Intend to paint. Choose a format and aspect ratio you think v/ill best showcase your composition, highlighting the unique features of the Scandinavian blue dragon.
J7] 2 Complete the Preliminary Computer Sketch Once you have settled on a basic design, begin your computer sketch using a stylus and tablet. Use simple chisel and round brushes while sketching to replicate the aesthetic of pencil drawing and broad paintbrush washes. At this point work in grayscale at a dpi of about 150. This allows you to push the sketch around and make dramatic alterations to the design without needing too much processing time. This is not a problem anymore with most computers, but large images at high resolution and multiple layers can get up into the hundreds of megabytes, and can take a few seconds to make complicated effects happen. Waiting for the computer to catch up is as frustrating as waiting for paint to dry.
TUTORIAL: COMPOSITION Composition is the fundamental arrangement of elements that make up a work of art. The goal in painting, as in music, dance or any other art form, is to create a composition that is balanced. Too much of one thing or another can throw off the arrangement and make the work inharmonious or discordant. You want the viewers eye to move smoothly around the picture, finally arriving at your focal point. As an artist, you can use various tools to direct the viewer’s eye. 11ère I’ve used the painting of the Scandinavian blue dragon to illustrate a few methods you can utilize when constructing a composition. Feel free to use any technique (or a combination of many) in your work. The Golden Section The ancient mathematical equation and diagram of the Golden Section (approximately 1:1.61 is an excellent tool for composing Ancients believed it was a sacred equation that governed the universe. Finding the Fulcrum The fulcrum is the point on which your design hinges (marked here with an F). Just like a scale, a composition should not tip too much in one direction or another. Patterns Instead of drawing the eye inward to focus on one point, the use of a repeating pattern helps unify a painting and allows the eye to move smoothly across multiple pomts. Orbits •Using elliptical concentric forms around the focal point—like orbits around the sun—helps draw the eye inward to the center. Directional Lines Sometimes called "pinwheeling" or 'windmilling.* this technique is lb- C<i:-: ost ul .ill: ji.sl point or arrow v.hiy« you wont pec-ole to lor
3Add the First Layer of Details Once you're satisfied with the design of the painting, double the dpi to 300, allowing you to work In close and render all the little tiddly bits and fjords that are so much fun. Detailing the wings and scales helps make the animal much more believable.
5 Add a New Layer of Color Apply a new layer of semiopaque paint (ébauche) over the underpainting, applying a local color and some added texture to the forms in the image. Blocking in a color, ébauche is done with broad simple brushes in a 50% opacity normal mode. 6 Add Texture and Deepen the Color Using an image of impasto paint texture, copy and paste the image into a new layer over your painting and change its opacity and mode to 25% Multiply. Color balance the layer to a blue hue. jjd,. erasing away the information you don't need and leaving just a $ ; hint of painted texture in the rocks. This information will be almost Mf] completely obliterated by subsequent work, but it s there, and it {¿•I helps add depth. Starting from the extreme foreground and working backward, render the background. Using opaque paint, the color and contrasts increase as objects move forward into focus. Although you working over much of the texture and information beneath, it is still there and helps as a guide informing the shapes and colors rendered.
***** 7 Add the Details Deepen the colors and render the details of the dragon’s face and body. Don't forget that little dot of white to make his eye look wet. How do you paint a dragon? One brushstroke at a time. There are no shortcuts or filters or tricks you can use to get the effect you need. Whether painting In oil, acrylic or digital, the technique Is the same. Hours of rendering. Little brushes with opaque paint and more saturated colors will bring the final touches to this beautiful Scandinavian blue dragon.
 TT WELSH DRAGON Dracorexus idraigoxus SPECIFICS IO\S Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/ Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/D. idraigoxus Size: 75’ (23m) Wingspan: 100- (30m) Weight: 30,000 lbs (13620kg) Recognition: Bright red markings on males (subtler on females); nasal and chin horn on males; paddle rudder on tail: canard wings behind hip Habitat: Northern British coastal regions Also known as: Draig, red dragon, red wyrm 60

LSH EXPEDITION lilL Range of the Welsh Dragon \ map shows the known dragon lairs in northern Wales. o' WALES \ : departing Trondheim, Norway, Conceil and I set off to Northern Wales. Landing in Cardiff, we transported our ves by way of the British rail system through the beaut i fill landscape of Snowdonia and arrived in Caernarfon. There we met our guide for this expedition, Sir Geoffrey Guest, Royal Dragon Ghillie and Head Gamekeeper with icTrenadog Royal Dragon Trust. Sir Geoffreys family has been gamekeepers and stalkers in the royal forests and preserves of Wales for hundreds of years. He escorted Conceil and me deep into the Trenadog Dragon Trust where we hoped to observe the powerful Welsh red dragon in its natural habitat. We made our base camp in the charming old mining village of Trefor, along Caernarfon Bay. From there we were able to hike up into Yr Bill (the Rivals) to get a closer look at the dragons. ' W’: <=4=4 10. 12. 10 1300 \ MAESAWYRCAEROYDO "V F1233
OR Welsh Cane This cane was presented to Sir Geoffreys greatgrandfather in 1899 by Edward, Prince of Wales, future King Edward VII of England. This prized family heirloom has passed from father to son for three generations. The head of the cane is a claw from a dragon hunted by the prince and Geoffrey's great-grandfather when he held the title of Royal Dragon Ghillie. The Trefor Map This old 19th-century map is still used by Sir Geoffrey. It clearly shows the old granite mine outside the town on the slopes of the mountain. Today the mine is closed and the ruins are home to a Welsh red dragon and its brood. Ecotourists come to see this magnificent creature and the town that lives in its shadow. Courtesy of the Caernarfon Draconic Society. Caernarfon. 63
Sir Geoffrey explained to us during our expedition a great ral about the biology of the Welsh red dragon. While it is ic that the Welsh red is the rarest of the western dragons, its protected status for hundreds of years under the protec -of the royal crown has allowed the animal to survive. Like other Great Dragons, the female red mates only every few years and her gestation period is extensive, sometimes lasting up to 36 months. A clutch usually only-consists of three eggs, which arc fiercely guarded by both mother and father. When the hatchlings are born, they no more than the size of a puppy, requiring great attention for several years until they can fend for themselves. During this time period the male usually does all the of fish and whales, bringing the kill back to the lair where the female protects her young. Once the hatchlings have learned to fly, the males leave the lair and begin looking for a new territory. Due to disease, perdition or accident only approximately 20 percent of Welsh red dragon hatchlings survive to adulthood, which means that one Welsh red dragon couple may produce only a single adult dragon on average once every twenty years. Through conservation and preservation these numbers are improving, but the Welsh red dragon remains squarely on the endangered species list. Welsh Red Dragon Egg. 17" (43cm) 64
^ i L £ j i . L\i P* Color Variations Like other dragons, the Welsh red dragon has a wide variation of patterns and colors between male and female. The frills and horns of the male are absent in the female, as are the bright markings that become deeper in the fall. Welsh Red Dragon Juvenile Young Great Dragons grow extremely quickly, consuming their own body weight in meat every day. Young Welsh red dragons begin life with a mottled camouflage that molts and turns into the distinctive red with age.
"dragon on the moor" The great Welsh red dragon ot folklore and history is by tar the most famous within the Dracorexidae family of drag-. Although the red dragons do not have as large a range the white and blue dragons and are far rarer (estimated than 200 remaining), they hold the distinctions of ring in such close connection to the humans in their area that the relationship is almost symbiotic. Dragon-human contact, however, is almost unheard of. “They’re like your lerican grizzlies,” Sir Geoffrey explains. “If you leave alone, they don’t bother you. But if you taunt them or their hatchlings, you’re in big trouble.” The current range of the Welsh red dragon stretches north to the Faroe Islands, south into Wales, and across much of the northern islands of Scotland, where the dragons hunt seals and small whales from the sea. Ddraig acha r Chlun KEEP YOUR DOG ON A LEAD DO NOT FEED THE DRAGONS DO NOT APPROACH THEM Warning Signs Signs like this one are all and along Llyn Peninsula
Dragon Songs Welsh red dragons bellow deep sonorous songs that can be heard over tong miles. This helps them to navigate among other dragons even when visibility is low. Wings as Protection The large sail-like wings of dragons are filled with blood vessels. Lying in the warm sun, even on a cold day. can warm large dragons. Similarly, on a hot day the wind blowing across their wings cools them off. very much like the ears on an elephant. Camouflaged by Color In the fall, the hillsides of wales and northern Britain become ablaze with autumn foliage. During this season the Welsh red dragon can blend in extremely well to its surroundings. Hunting for Food Here a Welsh red dragon swoops down out of the sun to strike at a pod of Risso's dolphins. >«5000«
It Perhaps nowhere else in the world is the land so intertwined with its dragons as in Wales. Wales is synonymous with dragons, and the Welsh red dragon is emblazoned on their Hag and woven into their national mythology, i' The dragons had very little contact with humans until the ['English settlement of Wales in the Medieval period. By the 12th century, King Edward 1 opened Wales up as a frontier For centuries the royalty of Britain regularly hunted dragons in royal game forests like Trenadog Royal Dragon Trust, maintained by the famous Welsh dragon ghillies. I he last red dragon hunt to take place was in 1907. Today the dragon ghillies act as guides for naturalists and visitors. Although it is illegal to hunt the red dragon, a dragon ghillie may use force if a dragon threatens humans or their land of England. He hired French military architect Master homes. Luckily that has never been needed during Sir Jacques de Saint-Georges to build heavily fortified strong- Geoffrey's tenure, holds throughout this new territory. There was no doubt that the intrusion of so many English would upset the local Welsh tribes as well as the dragons who lived there. The Llyn Peninsula was all but cut off from the rest of Wales by a ring of stone castles. Red dragons have been historically well protected in Wales. Technically all red dragons are protected as the personal stock of the royal family dating back to the reign of King Edward I. This aristocratic land management and strict protection allowed the Welsh dragon to survive well into the 21st century while other dragon species like the European wyvern and the lindworm were hunted to extinction. Tl Welsh Landscape The red autumn landscape helps aid the Welsh dragon’s camouflage. Photo courtesy of Conceil Delacroix. Observation Post - i ', 'Small stone stalker cottages like this one dot the Welsh k \'' coastline and serve to house •,y< ghillies and hunters as they 'MJj travel inside the Royal Trust. Conceil and I camped at { Several along our tour wii j Geoffrey ; if; 68
WeUk Rzd Siyktmys Here are a few of the sketches of the Welsh red dragon from our treks through the Trcnadog Royal Dragon Trust. 69
Welsh Red Dragon Working in my studio, I used sketchbooks of studies from our trip to Wales to develop a painting of the Welsh red dragon. My first memory was of its bright fire displays. I knew that this painting would need to be dominated by the dramatic fire light. Here is a list of aspects of the dragon that 1 want to include in this painting: • Elegant dragon figure • Bright red markings • Dramatic fire display • Dark Welsh landscape 1 Create an Initial Sketch Plan your painting with one or more rough preliminary thumbnail sketches. At the earliest stages of the sketch I begin the con-position with the large fireball as a major compositional element.
2 Establish the Underpainting Refine the drawing in grayscale to render the dragon's form. In this early stage. I include a large fireball as a major compositional element. Establish the form and value of the lighting and light effects. 71
r Intensify the Light Source Surrounding your light source with a field of darker, more muted colors makes it appear even brighter. In this example you can see why dragons use fire to communicate over great distances. At night, these beacons can be seen for miles, turning a simple sketch into a cramauc scene. . TUTORIAL: DRAGON FIRE? LIGHTING EFFECTS AND LIGHT SOURCES A lighting effect is the source that emits the light reflecting offyour objects. This is only an issue if the light source itself is in a picture. If the source is off frame, then we see only the reflection of the light source affecting the object. But if the light source is in the picture—such as dragon fire—then it has to be taken into account. Apply these two basic principles when dealing with light sources that are in frame: • The light source should always be the lightest thing in the painting. The highlights made by a light source can’t be brighter than the light source itself. • The light source should radiate light and cast shadows that affect nearby objects. You can spend a lifetime studying the nuances of light: colored light, diffused light, ambient light, dappled light, reflected light and so on. However, for the purpose of this exercise, these two cornerstones are enough to get you started. Apply these rules to anything in your painting—a sword, a stone, a tattoo, a ball of flame, a hamster, anything—and it will glow as a light source. Isn’t that a neat trick? From Sketch to Painting Here ypu see how adding the principles of lighting effects to a simple sketch can help bring your work to life. The flame becomes the light source in the image and creates stark lighting, deep contrasts and saturated colors. Lighting effects glow with a gradient of colors between the color of the light and the color of its surroundings. In this case, the colors go from bright yellow to its opposite, dark purple. The glow transitions in a gradient from yellow to orange to red to fuchsia and into purple. 72
4 Establish the Colors Apply 50% opaque Normal mode layer over the painting to establish the local colors of the elements. Choosing complemen tary colors for this image is quite obvious-. A red dragon and a bright yellow fireball dictate a dark purple and green background. This creates both color and value contrasts in the composition. 3Set the Base Color Change the file’s mode to RGB and use the color balance adjustment toggle to slide the painting into the purple hues. 73
TUTORIAL: PRACTICE LIGHTING WITH SCULPTURE Practice and study sculpture to better understand the behavior of light and shadow on objects. When you are stumped on how a certain object should look under particular lighting, work from a model. I have a collection of toy monsters and dinosaurs that come in handy for this. Straight Forward Sldo Lighting The light creates shapes of value that contrast against one another, creating the illusion of a three-dimensional form. Lighting From Below Dramatic lighting from below creates a stark contrast of black and white forms. In Eastern art theory, this is referred to as Notan. Reflected Light. Single Light Source This Image shows a single light source from the side, but much of the information Is lost in the shadows. Reflected Light. Double Light Source Add a simple secondary light source to illuminate the shadow side of the form. This helps give much greater dimension to your subject. 5 Complete the Background Working back to front, lay down opaque paint to complete the background': range of purple tones. The background should act as a frame for the composition. enhancing the subject without being distracting. Adding tonal texture is helpful as well. ■■I SB* 74
6 Add the Finishing Touches Rendering the little details is the hardest but most important part of finishing a painting. At times it can be daunting, but the rewards are well worth it. As I often told Conceit along our expedition when he would grumble, the difference between a professional and an amateur is that an amateur quits when it gets difficult. You may have no desire to be a professional artist, but to achieve professional results, in art as in anything in life, there are no shortcuts. Final details such as cheek, horns, bright highlights on the teeth and a sharp reflection in the eye help pop the focal point into even sharper focus.
 LIGURIAN DRAGON Dracorexus cinqaterrus SPECIFICATIONS Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/ Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/D.cinqaterrus Wingspan: 25' (8m) Weight: 2.500 lbs. (1135kg) Recognition: Gray-silver markings on males with bright lavender-violet during mating season: subtler colors on females: ten-digit wings: large crests and frills along neck and tail Habitat: Northern Italian coastal regions Conservation status: Highly endangered Also known as: Dragoni, Dragonara. Dracogrigio. silver dragon, amethyst dragon

Ligurian Expedition cold of northern European climates that Conceil have traveled since we left America, the warm and sunny coast of Italy, known as the Cinque Terre, was a wel come change. After departing northern Wales and spend-everal days in London, our journey took us southward Italy to study the rarest of all the Great Dragons, the Ligurian gray dragon. The northern coast of Italy along the Ligurian Sea is )ften referred to as the Italian Riviera. Since WWII the five cities of the Cinque Terre (“the Five Lands”) in the region of Liguria have become vacation destinations to millions. Fortunately for the inhabitants of the five seaside villages— Monterosso al Mare, Vernazza, Corniglia, Manarola and Riomaggiore—as well as tor the Ligurian gray dragon, the world had not intruded on them since the Middle Ages. Roads still do not allow access into the towns themselves, but the railroad arrived in the 1950s, bringing with it a torrent of tourists to gape at the scenery and toss fish to the dragons, doing more damage than all the pirates the dragons had evaded for a millennium. The National Park of Cinque Terre is now protected as a world environmental and cultural heritage site. Conceil and I arrived at the beautiful seaport town of Genoa but had no time to linger when the rarest and arguably the most beautiful dragon of the world awaited. Our guide, Bevenuto Modigliani, is head of the art department at the Institute of Genoa and is a wonderful inspiration for understanding this beautiful region. It is a refreshing change to spend time with another artist and to see the beautiful environment of the Ligurian gray dragon through the eyes of an artist. 78
 IXQl AND J UE ENVIRON! LIGURIA A'iosso Monte Gagnant TALY Map of the Cinque Terre, Italy Italian and Ligurian Rags Liguria Is a region in northern Italy containing the province of La Spezia. pp 1 If* Wy
Biology ’vf; The Ligurian gray dragon is not only the rarest but also the most biologically different of all of the Great Dragons. It is > also the only dragon species that has more than live supra-metacarpals in its wings. A total of ten metacarpal bones radiate out from the radius and ulna bones. 'Ibis unique fficonstruction makes for very dexterous movements of the [. wings, allowing the dragons great maneuverability in the i> air. Biologists have debated over the past few centuries whether to include the Ligurian gray dragon within the family Dracorexidae, or to devote it to a whole new family. I he Ligurian gray dragon also has the distinction of being the smallest of the Great Dragons with a maximum recorded wingspan of only 25’ (8m), and an average wingspan of about 15’ (5m). It is often mistaken for the amphiptere species that live in the Cinque Terre region. 'I he Ligurian gray dragon is the southernmost species of Great Dragons. Face Frills The male Ligurian gray dragon uses these flamboyant (rills as mating displays. Ligurian Gray Dragon in Profile. 15' (5m)
Ligurian Gray Dragon Male Overhead, Wingspan 25' (8m) The coloring on the male ranges from pale silver to vibrant purple. Ligurian Gray Dragon Female Overhead, Wingspan 25' (8m) The mottled brown tones of the female allow her to camouflage into the rocky cliffs. Ligurian Gray Dragon Egg, 6" (15cm) Environmental changes have made the Ligurian gray dragon very rare. It is believed there may be as few as a dozen mating pairs left in the wild. The eggs of the Ligurian gray dragon are a national treasure handled with the same care as the master artworks of the nation. Ligurian Gray Dragon Wing The ten metacarpals of the Ligurian gray-dragon are twice as many as other Great Dragon species. This structure allows the dragon to fold its wings into intricate and subtle shapes in order to perform highly dexterous aerial maneuvers.
terranean Seas (ACCBAMS), in 1998 the population of porpoises in these waters had dropped 99 percent since 1950 (from 1 million to 10,000). In the late 20th century, drastic measures were taken to protect cetaceans living in the Mediterranean. 'I he Pelagos Marine Sanctuary, formerly the Ligurian Cetacean Preserve designated in 1999, was the largest ACCBAMS marine preserve; it is a joint collaboration between Italy, France and Monaco. This action is believed to have had the greatest effect in saving the Ligurian gray dragon. In 1998, the Italian Ministry for the Environment created a marine sanctuary along the Cinque Terre to preserve this ancient coast in pristine condition. Additionally, the Parco Nationale del Cinque Terre, a UNESCO World Heritage site, and the World Dragon Protection Fund have helped to save the Ligurian gray dragon from extinction, but it is still acutely threatened despite living in one of the most environmentally protected regions in the world. ve cliffside villages that make up the Cinque Terre are >reathtaking in their beauty, and today exist much as they have since the medieval period due to inaccessibility from the outside world. For most of its history, these villages only be approached by boat or by goat path. After WWII, the development of roads and rail opened these territories up to tourists and trade, drastically affecting the Ligurian gray dragons habitat. It was believed that the igurian gray dragon had gone extinct by the end of the 1940s, but the relative isolation of the Cinque Terre saved from that fate. Today they are one of the rarest spe cies of dragon in the world, known to exist only within this tiny seashore of Italy. Currently, the World Dragon Protection Fund estimates that there are fewer than 100 Ligurian gray dragons alive. Hie most dramatic effect on the Ligurian gray dragon has been to its food supply. According to the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black and Medi- Ligurian Habitat 82
Sunbathing Gray Dragon The Mediterranean sun helps the warm themselves. Feeding Frenzy The relatively small teeth of the gray dragon are used to grasp the fish that it feeds upon. ATTENTZIONE! Non Somministrare i Dragoni Do Not Feed The Dragons Ne Pas Nourrir ies Dragons No se Alimentan los Dragones 83
History Based upon documents from earlier studies and depictions in scientific journals from as early as the 17th century, it is believed that the Ligurian gray dragon has shrunk in size almost 30 percent. With the depletion of marine mammals, the gray has needed to change its feeding habits from por poises and seals to tuna and sea bass. The larger specimens very likely starved to death, leaving a smaller breeding population. This small area in northern Italy comprises all that is left of the Ligurian gray dragons habitat, and exists uniquely as a region where dragons and humans live in the closest proximity to one another. The Ligurian people and government take great pride in this fact. Most of the depictions of dragons created during the Italian Renaissance and Baroque periods are of gray dragons. Because of its long history of living in close proximity to humans, the Ligurian gray dragons population lias drastically decreased over the centuries. They were hunted with the same fervor that wiped out the European wyvern. Some draconologists today believe that the Ligurian gray dragon was originally an Asian dragon species that may have been brought to Italy by explorers of eastern trade routes during the early Renaissance. This hypothesis bears some merit since medieval depictions of dragons almost always depict wyverns, while post-Renaissance dragon depictions appear more dragonesque. Ligurian Roundel Rendering ot a 17th-century architectural roundel. Courtesy of the Institute of Genoa. Elegant Frills The Ligurian gray dragon is famous? for its elaborate and beautiful neck frills. Ligurian-Inspired Glider ■This 16th-century hang glider design was inspired by the wings of the dragon as depicted in Leonardo da Vinci's notebooks. 84

 Gray Dragon of the Ligurian dragon is quite different others. Revisiting my sketchbooks and notes, I of the exquisite colors present on the Italian Here is an itemization of the qualities I want to include to best illustrate this dragon: • Elaborate head frills • Elongated and sinuous body shape • Bright Mediterranean light and color tlDtf D&IjOIÍ 't Complete a Thumbnail Sketch 1 In my sketchbook I began my large-scale work by compiling all of the sketches that I did in Liguria and working to compose a design that would best demonstrate the Ligurian gray dragon’s attributes. 86
 555 2 Complete the Preliminary Computer Sketch Whether you are working in a traditional or digital medium, the process of drawing is the same. Beginning the work with large general shapes allows the drawing to come into focus slowly and broadly. The image is in grayscale at this point so as to not be distracted by color. Beginning work with a gray ground allows you to sketch tonally to establish mass and light before you concern yourself with details. Keep in mind the anatomical studies of the dragon and consider how it moves. As you can see from this preliminary drawing stage, the initial focus is to establish the mass and silhouette of the dragon. Just as a sculptor begins with a lump of clay, begin by carving the large shapes and shadows into the painting using broad opaque brushstrokes. 3 Refine the Finished Orawing Still working in grayscale, increase the file size of the image once satisfied with the sketch. Now you can go back into the drawing using all of you reference sketches from earlier and render the detailed anatomy. Deep shadows along with bright white highlights enhance the dragon's form, especially around the face. The landscape is rendered based upon the reference material and sketches made during my expedition to Liguria.

5 Add Color Start painting the first new layer. Set at 50% opacity Normal layer using bright colors on a broad loose allows you to establish local colors individual objects. Keep it loose and fast. Separating this with a new layer allows you to make changes or experiment with colors without affecting the sketch. 4 Set the Base Color Now that your drawing is finished, you can begin to paint color into the dragon. Change the color to RGB mode, then adjust the color balance to purple. The dragon will have bright silvery overtones and cool blue shadows, as well as rich bright scenery in the background. Purple or violet is a wonderful hue that can be pushed into warmer tones by adding reds or cooler tones by adding blue.
6 Lay In Shadows Create a new 50% opacity Multiply mode layer, and lay a loose glaze of shadows. This technique is a holdover from an oil painting technique where you lay In a colored glaze in order to reestablish the forms and light after the initial color underpainting. 7 Refine the Background The color of the Ligurian landscape is bright and saturated due to the sunlight that illuminates the Italian coast, in these stages, work back to front. Use the principles of atmospheric perspective so the color becomes more saturated as the environment advances toward the viewer. 90



Crimean Expedition Departing from the sunny and bright climate of northern Italy, Conceil and 1 began the next leg of our expedition to one of the most mysterious dragon regions of the world— the Ukraine and the Crimean peninsula. Here we studied the least understood of the Great Dragons, the Crimean black dragon. Landing in Simferopol, Crimea, Conceil and I met our guide, Dr. Alexi Kandinsky of the Ukrainian Dracotechnikal Institute, formerly known as the Soviet Dracotechnikal Institute. Dr. Kandinsky was a Soviet draconaut, but is now director of the institute. Access to the Crimean black dragon and the Dracotechnikal Institute and nearby Dracodrome was unheard of before the fall of the Soviet Union, and today there is still lingering trepidation about allowing Westerners in to visit. This trip is the first of its kind, and we are excited to learn as much as possible from Dr. Kandinsky. Our Tour Guide, Dr. Alexi Kandinsky The Ukrainian Dracotechnikal Institute This learning institution in Simferopol was once the world's largest government-funded dragon research center in the world. UKR 01 FP \7. 1 0 14 CiM(|lOpOIIOnb 0156 94
Range of the Crimean Black Dragon CRIMEAN BLACK DRAGON К p иMс ь к i Ч о p н о г о Дракона Historical Range Present Range
Crimean black dragon is fairly small by comparison to some of its Great Dragon cousins, usually being no more than 25' (8m) long with a 50' (15m) wingspan. There are, however, rumors that during the height of the War, Soviet scientists at the Dracotechnikal Institute were bioengineering super-dragons from black dragon stock. Increased intelligence would allow for dragons to fly reconnaissance spy missions over NAT O military installations and record data photographically. In 1965, what was believed to be a black dragon was shot down near the Cigli US. Air Force Base in TVirkey. The Soviet Union denied any involvement with the incident or that they were genetically engineering spy dragons. I tried to broach the subject with Dr. Kandinsky, but he insisted that the Dracotechnikal Institute and the Dracodromc have always been purely scientific in nature and that he has no recollection of any to weaponize dragons by the military. Conceil and I decided that we should drop the subject if we wanted to stay in Dr. Kandinsky’s good graces. Crimean black dragons have survived for millennia off of the plentiful stocks of large Black Sea bass and massive sturgeon in the region’s rivers, lakes and seas. It is believed that some examples of Crimean black dragons must have at one time been able to grow twice as big as a specimen today. Crimean Black Dragon in Profile, 25' (8m) The Crimean black dragon is distinctive for its profile. Because of its airplane-like tail, high dorsal fin, swept wings and pronounced chin horn, some scientists have suggested that early Soviet jet airplane designs were modeled after the Crimean black dragon. 96
 м¡ж£т£ма£к6а Crimean Black Dragon Male Overhead, Wingspan 50’ (15m) Crimean Black Dragon Female Overhead, Wingspan 50' (15m) Crimean Black Dragon Head The distinctive profile of the Crimean black dragon's head varies by individual and more greatly between families. Both the male and female possess the pronounced chin prow, although It is more dominant on the males. It is used as a weapon between competitive rivals, and for hatchlings to break out of their shells.
 Behavior The Crimean black dragon once ted upon the legendary sturgeon that grew to extraordinary sizes, but the diminishing sea life of the region has caused the dragon to diminish in both size and numbers. The Crimean black dragon was at one time a common sight as far west as the Carpathian Mountains in what is now Romania to the Caucasus in modern-day Turkey and Georgia, making their home along the coasts of the Black and Caspian Seas. Today, however, the best place to see the black dragon is in Crimea along the rocky coasts of the Black Sea. The majestic Crimean black dragon has become terribly endangered over the past century due to heavy industrialization and lack of preservation of their habitat during the reign of the Soviet Union. The black dragons in Crimea predominantly lived within the Dracodrome military base in the mountains outside Simferopol. When the Dracodrome was defunded and abandoned in 1991, many of the dragons were destroyed, but some escaped and continue to live within the communities where they had been raised in captivity. Today there are believed to be over two dozen dragons living in the ruins of the former Dracodrome. The area is off limits to outsiders, ostensibly for the safety of the public and the dragon. All attempts by the World Dragon Protection Fund to perform a study of the dragons living at the Dracodrome have been denied by the Ukrainian government. During our multiple trips to the Dracodrome to draw and paint the Crimean black dragon, we were not allowed inside the compound. This tight-knit community of dragons is unique within the Dracorexidae family. Nowhere else in the world are there Great Dragons living in such close proximity to one another. T he highly developed socialization is speculated by some draconologists to be a part of their genetic engineering. The Crimean Habitat
Crimean Lair Before the 20th century. Crimean black dragons made their lairs in the craggy seashores of the Black. Caspian and Azov Seas and fed upon the giant sturgeon that once populated the waterways. Today Crimean black dragons in the wild are extremely rare as their diet of sturgeon and cetaceans has all but vanished. Conceii investigates what we are told is an abandoned dragon lair. Crimean Black Dragon Hatchling Born in clutches of one to six eggs, the Crimean dragonling is about 12" (30cm) long when born. The Crimean black dragon is the only Great Dragon species to have been successfully bred in captivity. Today these dragons are raised on a limited scale at the Ukrainian Dracotech-mkal institute and roleased into the wild.
tl imean peninsula has been one of the most bitterly over pieces of geography in history, from the Greeks Romans to the Ottoman lurks. In 1854, the Crimean War between the Russians and the French ravaged the area, in WWII Crimea was sought after by both the Russians and the Germans. Both conflicts devastated most of Crimea. The Crimean peninsula is heavily defunded along its southern coast, which is rimmed with a tall palisade of cliffs near Yalta; this has been home to the black dragons for millennia. Because of these repeated military conflicts, as well as massive post-war industrialization and the destruction of most of the fish supply in the Black Sea, the Crimean black dragon has been on the critically endangered list since the 1970s. Like the gray dragon, the black dragon has reduced in size in order to survive. In 1941, during the siege of the Soviet Union in the Battle of the Crimea, Stalin became fascinated with the attempts to genetically engineer animals. The best Soviet draconologists were brought together and commanded to create a weaponized breed of dragons that would be able to intercept Nazi warplanes. Like many of Stalins eccentric ideas, the creation of a Soviet super dragon was never achieved, but it did serve as a successful propaganda item. Soviet Spy Dragon Here is an artist's rendenng of a Soviet Cold War-era reconnaissance dragon gear. The dragon pro- that centered at the Dracodrome in Crimea spent years breeding intelligent specimens of dragons to effect spying missions over After the war, the Soviet Dracotechnikal Institute was formed in Simferopol. Later, Cold War reports indicated that the Soviet Dracotechnikal Institute continued to experiment with black dragons into the 1980s, with some success in reconnaissance fly-over missions. With the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Dracotechnikal Institute was defended and today is a private company. Repeated charges by the World Dragon Protection Fund of breeding to sell to private owners have been denied, hut a complete accounting of the institute has never been allowed. 100
Wartime Propaganda Soviet-era propaganda poster featuring the Crimean dragon. Courtesy of the Simferopol Historical Society. Simferopol Dracodrome 1960s U2 photograph of the Simferopol Dracodrome. Courtesy of the United States Army.
Black Dragon on a painting of the Crimean dragon requires ging together all of my field sketches and notes into a illustration. To begin, I catalogue all the elements that dragon embodies: Aerodynamic body Black markings Rugged Crimean landscape Create a Thumbnail Sketch Working from my sketches, I roughed out some ideas on paper to help me design my painting. I want to show the dragon in flight and include the iconic Swallow's Nest Castle in the background. I quickly decided that an aerial composition would be a dramatic format to showcase this beautiful animal. My initial design shows the dragon in a dramatic, foreshortened pose. Although I like the idea. I decided to flip the dragon's position 90 degrees in order to better the sleek, aerodynamic profile of the dragon, and foreshorten the wings instead. cRUflfcM рв'.бЫ 2 Begin the Preliminary Computer Sketch Create a 7“ x 11* (18cm x 28cm) 100dpi grayscale Photoshop file. Carve out the forms of the design with large, broad paint strokes. Begin the forms of the background elements. 102
3 Continue Rendering the Sketch Drawing and painting is not a stepty-step process, but rather an evolution. The painting grows and changes as you work. I do not have a fully formed image in my head of the finished drawing when I begin work. Think of your work like a lump of clay that can be shaped and transformed as you wish, but also remember that, like a sculpture, there is an armature of anatomy underneath. 4 Create the Background Architecture Apply the linear perspective grid to the drawing and use reference for the castle to render the background. I pull reference photos from the Internet and keep them on a separate layer to guide me as I am painting.
TUTORIAL: PERSPECTIVE Perspective is the artistic illusion of making objects appear to recede into the distance. There are essentially three kinds of perspective—linear perspective, atmospheric perspective and foreshortening. In painting the Crimean black dragon, I combined all three techniques to enhance the depth of the image. • Linear perspective: To achieve the bird’s-eye view of the Crimean coast, use the tools of linear perspective: horizon line and vanishing point. The horizon line is the line where the land meets the sky. When standing on the ground, it appears in our middle vision and remains straight and level. Raising the horizon line adds more ground into the picture and creates a bird’s-eye view. The vanishing point is the point to which all lines recede into the distance. This is where the computer becomes an indispensable tool. Snapping straight lines is simple using the line (L) tool in a separate layer. 1 begin by enlarging the canvas size of my painting until I have enough room on all sides to incorporate the linear perspective grid. 1 establish a point in which the vertical perspective lines will recede and mark that vanishing point 1.1 can then snap lines using the line tool in a separate layer, repeating this technique for vanishing points 2 and 3. Atmospheric perspective: We have all stood on a hill, looked toward the horizon and seen how objects recede into the mist. This is known as atmospheric or aerial perspective. As objects recede into space, the atmosphere between the viewer and the object becomes thicker, making it harder to see through. Color becomes desatu-rated, details become less distinct, edges of forms become blurry and contrast reduces. Foreshortening: This is a perspective technique where the dimensions of a form arc dramatically compressed to create the illusion of depth. When drawing dragons, foreshortening is often used to render the entire dragons form within the confined space of a composition and to create a dramatic scene. r Atmospheric Perspective Painting atmospl>eric perspective combined with foreshortening helped depict the illusion of dimension in the tall and the legs. Linear Perspective In the example of the Crimean black dragon painting. I raised the horizon line dramatically. Once I found my vanishing points and created the perspective grid. I cropped the image back to its original format, leaving a perfect perspective template on a separate layer tirat could reveal or hide as I painted the architecture. Foreshortening In the Crimean black dragon painting, the effects of forestwtening were utilized to show the wings fully extended and create a sense of the 50 feet (15m) that spreads from wingtip to wingtip. You can see how compressed the space between the wings becomes (outlined by the ellipse), and the dramatic difference in size of the two wings.
5 Continue Developing Background Details Continue refining the background elements until the necessary detail has been achieved. It is much easier to work out these details now than having to alter the painting at a later stage. 6 Set the Base Color Once you're satisfied with the rendering, change the painting's mode to RGB color. Then, using the Color Balance slider, alter its hue to a warm violet. This color will allow you to transition easily between the cool blue background and the dark warm dragon foreground.
8 Establish Shadows Add a 50% opacity Multiply mode layer over this to create a quick shadow layer to help unify the lighting and form. 9 Refine Background Elements Working on the background in a new 100% opacity Normal layer, render the green details of the shore and light tones of the castle, looking at reference to properly capture the colors and textures of the Swallow's Nest Castle and the Yalta coast. Remember that all of these objects are in the distance, so under the rules of atmospheric perspective, the contrasts and colors should not be as stark as the foreground. 7 Lay In Local Colors in a new 50% opacity Normal mode layer, block in the local colors of the forms in the painting.
Ю Refine the Focal Point Refine the detail and contrast of the focal point: the dragon's face. Even in this tight fragment the use of all three perspective tools is apparent. The final rendering of the dragon takes time and patience. Here the paint brushes become very small and the paint becomes increasingly opaque. / /
Chinese Dragon & Dracorexus cathidaeus Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/ D.cath idaeus Size: 50 (15m) Wingspan: 100' (30m) Weight: 1.0.000 lbs (4,550kg) Recognition: Broad narrow wing with only one elongated supra-metacarpal; yellow-gold markings vary by individual and season: ornate antlers and manes on males Conservation status: Endangered Also known as: Yellow dragon, gold dragon, golden dragon, (pinyin) Huang Long

ese Expedition We, however, were not headed for the rural mountains of China; we went directly into one of the most polluted areas of the world, the Bohai Economic Rim, perhaps the largest industrial center on the planet. The Bohai is estimated to be home to over 100 million humans—more than the entire population of Italy and England combined within a space roughly the size of Iceland. We’ve come here to see the native habitat of the Chinese yellow dragon and the last remaining specimen that lives in the wild here, Tong Long Huo. Once in Dalian, we were greeted by our Chinese guide, Qian Mei Ling. Ms. Qian is a graduate student of the Wehai Institute of Natural Sciences as well as the leading resident specializing in the care of the dragon Tong Long Huo at the Bohai Dragon Sanctuary. She was assigned as our guide for the duration of our stay in China. Leaving Crimea to continue on our expedition, Conceit and I came to the most challenging leg of our journey. in Beijing, China, we then transferred to Dalian, vhere our journey began. The Chinese yellow dragon, one of the more abundant of the Great Dragons, is only listed as endangered because access to this majestic animal has been strictly regulated by the Chinese government for many decades. Only within the past few years have Chinese authorities allowed free access for tourists and draconologists to come and study this long sought-after animal. The Chinese yellow dragon is most commonly found in the mountainous rural regions and islands of Asia. no
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food, the Chinese yellow dragon is known to soar for days, ranging far from its lair in the search for food. Its massive glider wings enable the dragon to achieve astounding altitudes, soaring on the Pacific jet stream as high as 25,000 feet (7,600m) and reachingas far as the Hawaiian Islands. The primary food source of the Chinese yellow dragon is fish and cetaceans, depending on the size of the individual. Its unique habit, however, is that it can eat its catch while in flight, allowing it to stay out at sea for long periods of time. The Chinese yellow dragon is a rather nomadic animal only building a lair or nest when it needs to breed. The Chinese yellow dragon has a unique physiology that ; distinguishes it from other species within the Dracorexidae family. It is the only member of the Great Dragons that grows fur like the Arctic dragon family. The Chinese Yellow dragon also has five digits on each of its legs instead of four. It has the greatest wingspan of the Great Dragons, with the fifth of its supra-metacarpals extended similar to a pterosaur. The vast glider-like wings of the Chinese yellow dragon are specifically designed for soaring. Unlike other Great Dragons that may soar for several hours while hunting for 112
Mane and Facial Features The distinctive mane of the Chinese yellow dragon is thought to be used as a courtship charm. The thick mane, a mixture of fur and elongated scales, grows more ornate and full on the males as they get older. The nasal horn, unique to the males, also grows more prominent with age. Chinese Yellow Dragon Skull The majestic antlers on the males of the species are greatly prized throughout the world. In 1978, the World Dragon Protection Fund made it illegal to own or sell Great Dragon horns, but it is still possible to acquire some rare specimens in the Asian black markets. Chinese Yellow Dragon Male Overhead, Color Change In recent decades the coloration of the Chinese yellow dragon has muted to better camouflage itself in the heavy industrial population of central China.
a lush and beautiful land, the Bohai Sea is now completely dead, destroyed by pollution and overpopulation. With an active oil drilling industry in the Bohai and Yellow Seas adding to the environ-atal impact, the Chinese yellow dragons food source been depleted for nearly 50 years. The Chinese government has been working hard over the past few decades to undo some of the damage. Today the yellow lives away from the industrial centers of China, Taiwan and Japan and is beginning to gain in numbers, in the Bohai Straits, Tong Long Huo is the last specimen, protected, fed and cared for by the Chinese government. Tong Long Huo lives at Dragon Rock, where he is visited by millions of tourists a year. Before industrialization, Chinese yellow dragons would congregate along the Bohai Straits between the Yellow and the Bohai Seas. This area is known for its historical concentration of yellow dragons because the bottleneck in the straits allows the dragons to hunt efficiently for porpoises and large fish that traveled in these waters. I he environment of these seas has decreased drastically due to industrial runoff from surrounding cities, so the Bohai Sea is considered a dead sea, forcing the Chinese yellow dragon to travel farther from its native nesting grounds to find food. Industrial contamination is also blamed for early death and hatchling mortality among the dragons, further reducing their numbers. Today, the habitat of this huge animal is scattered due to industrialization, war and the decimation of sea life in its habitat by overfishing and pollution in surrounding waterways. Although the yellow dragon is on the protected list of the World Dragon Protection Fund, it is still actively poached by the Asian black market. The scales, bones, fur, organs and especially the horns of the Chinese yellow dragon are believed to contain powerful medicines to cure everything from arthritis to cancer. The scarcity of the dragon, along with its possession being illegal, makes the Chinese yellow dragon one of the most valuable commodities in the world. 114
Traveling in the Bohai Sanctuary Access to Tong Long Huo is limited to charted tours aboard boats like this one. Fortunately, we were granted special access by the Bohai Dragon Sanctuary. Tong Long Huo In 2003, Tong Long Huo became the first living creature to became a World Heritage Site. The Black Market The World Dragon Protection Fund scours markets like this one in Wehai to report to the authorities the sale of illegal dragon products. While amphiptere eggs, fey dragons and drakes are legal and are a popular food, the yellow dragon and the Chinese storm dragon are protected. Dragon Rock Dragon Rock, home to Tong Long Huo. has been a location of pride for hundreds of years with millions of visitors arriving to leave prayers for the august dragon. In 1987, the Chinese government built this refuge and limited tourist access.
History The dragons of Asia, and specifically China, have been linked to cultural, national and religious identity since recorded history. Nowhere else in the world is the dragon treated with such universal reverence. In parts of China the people sometimes even refer to themselves as “the i descendants of the dragon.” In every other culture that we visited, the dragon has always been a creature of fear and destruction, to be slain or destroyed. In China, the Great Dragons represent an elemental force of nature most commonly associated with water, the sea and storms. Being so integrally linked to the sea, the yellow dragon is a powerful totem. The dragons opposite is the Fenghuang or Chinese Phoenix (Quetzacoatylusfengincendi). Historically there have been many dragons catalogued as Chinese dragons. Although several species of amphi-ptere, drakes, wyrm and others live within the same habitat, only one species of Great Dragon lives on the Asian continent. Most often throughout history the Chinese yellow dragon has been misidentilied with the Chinese storm dragon and the temple dragon. 16th Century Chinese Scroll Painting This illustration of a Chinese yellow dragon is one of the few accurate 1 depictions from Chinese history. Courtesy of the Wehai Draconological 1 Institute. 116
 Yellow Dragon Head Variations There are more than 30 documented species of yellow dragons on the Asian continent and adjoining islands. As you can see from these different heads, yellow dragon depictions vary greatly. Chinese Statue Dragons represent good fortune and statues like this one are for sale in every market In China. 117
DEMONSTRATION Chinese Yellow Dragon 1 Develop Thumbnail Sketches . Sketch the Chinese yellow dragon in various poses to find a design that will best demonstrate its unique attributes. accumulated during my expedition to China. Using these sketches as my guidelines I can begin to create an accurate image of this majestic creature using these main aspects: • Broad wingspan • Unique silhouette • Environment of the Bohai Sea To conceptualize an illustration of the Chinese yellow dragon, I first go over all the notes and sketches that I
3 Carve the Shapes Use an Eraser tool or white paint to cut hack into shapes, moving back and forth with positive and negative spaces until you are satisfied with the composition. 2 Establish the Underpainting in a new layer at 100% opacity. Multiply mode, use a variety of texture brushes and a narrow range of tonal colors to establish the general spattering texture and form of the elements of the composition with a basic silhouette. I used some golden maple leaves that l brought back with me for inspiration of the dragon's mottling.
Digital Painting Desktop ► This is an example of how I display all the windows that I use most frequently. I prefer to keep my palette and toolboxes on my left, a habit of being left-handed and also a traditional painter for so many years. All of the layers are named so I can keep track of them. The brushes window is arranged in order of use. most popular kept at the top. Arrange and create your own brush set to suit your personal style. Complete a full value underpainting establishing all the details of the Chinese yellow dragon. In the detail of the you can see the colors and texture makeup. 120
5 Create Local Color Create a new layer and begin establishing the semiopaque local color. In traditional painting, this would be a color wash. Digitally. this can be achieved by toggling the layer opacity. 41
and Layers TUTORIAL: DIGITAL PAINTING WITH MODES With the layering feature, you can paint each stage of a painting on its own layer (like an acetate overlay sheet), then control each layer independently. In Photoshop, create a new layer by choosing Layer menu > New to set each layer to any of several blending modes that govern how its colors blend with those on other layers. You can also hide a layer temporarily by clicking its eye icon. The layer modes 1 use in this book are: • Normal layer mode. This is the default and simplest mode. On a layer in Normal mode, painting with a 100% opaque brush covers up whatever is on the base layer; painting with a lower-opacity brush allows the new color to blend with the color the way you would expect traditional colors to blend. • Multiply layer mode. On a layer in Multiply mode, the color of the base layer gets multiplied by the new color, resulting in a color that is always darker than the base color. Brushing repeatedly on the same area produces a progressively darker color, rather like repeated strokes of a marker. Working With Layers II you turn this painting on edge and look at the layers of the painting in an exploded view. what will it look like? I liken It to a series of paintings on glass. The digital artist is able to transform or alter each layer independently and even produce parallel versions of layers. 122
Tutorial: Opacity and modes Overlaying different parts of the painting using layer image. Scan an interesting texture and experiment opacity and layer mode can dramatically alter your with opacity and modes in Photoshop. Step A I begin by importing a grayscale scan of texture from my texture library as a new layer. To import a picture, simply open the picture file, select all. and then copy and paste the image into your painting. Step B Edit > Transform > Scale to fit the image to the stee you need. Then Image > Adjust > Color Balance to transform the layer's color. Layer Opacity 100%. Layer Mode: Normal.

7 Add the Finishing Touches In the final stage of the painting, add finishing touches to the focal point—the head shooting fire. Thin opaque brushstrokes using strong contrasts and rich colors help tighten the rendenng.
SPECIFICATIONS Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/D. klallaminus Wingspan: 85' (26m) Weight: 20.000 lbs. (9000kg) Recognition: Mottled brown and tan markings: broad face with short muzzle: twin forked tail Habitat: Northwestern North American coastal regions Conservation status: Vulnerable d Elwah dragon ■ Dracorexus klallaminus Also known as: Brown dragon, owl dragon, Thurv derbird. lightning serpent. Kuhnuxwah, Webber’s dragon. Salish dragon

Expedition eparting China for the final leg of our expedition, Con-ceil and I arrived safely in Seattle to complete our circum-of the globe in search of dragons. From Seattle, nceil and I continued our trek by traveling onward to the city of Port Angeles on the border of Olympic National Park and the Elwha National Dragon Sanctuary (ENDS). There we meet our guide, Sheriff Meriwether Johnson, who is not only the director of the Elwah Dragon Sanctuary Research Center, but is also a member of the local tribal council and chief dragon ranger as well as sheriff of the ENDS. We joined Sheriff Johnson on a routine patrol into the back country of the ENDS to draw this amazing dragon in its natural habitat. Sheriff Johnson told us about the sacred and important role that the Elwah brown dragon has played over the millennia. The native people of this area have lived alongside the dragon for centuries. He explained that the majority of his job is done on horseback patrolling and protecting the dragons inside the sanctuary. IAH NATIONAL DRAGON SANCTUARY Back Country Permit Telephone # Vehicle Description (Tipo de vcftculo) Actrvoy to tM Conduced (check » ihal i&i) 'dipñoflM «HtwIüñSr y* yC Guided To«» Comirerelal Guide Dragon s. the preserve are endangered Hunting or harassing animals within the park is i FEDERAL CRIME) , , THE GATE LEADING OUT OF THE 8/y _______ PARK IS LOCKED AI b_ SEA-TAC FÎ2800 a ay

Elwah brown dragon is one of the most distinctive of the Dracorexidae family. 'I he broad face and muzzle that give the dragon its uncanny resemblance an owl has the same function as its avian relative. The broad cone of the dragons face acts as a sound amplifier focusing subtle noise into the dragons ear canals. Where most Great Dragons rely upon sight and smell to hunt* the Elwah brown dragon hunts by sound. The fog-shrouded coasts of the Pacific Northwest make hunting difficult. The dragon uses its high piercing screech to echolocate itself and its relationship to its prev. 130
Elwah Brown Dragon Egg, 12" (30cm) Elwah Brown Dragon Hatchlings A clutch of Elwah brown dragon eggs usually consists of 2 to 6 hatchlings. Elwah Brown Dragon Skull The skull of the Elwah brown dragon shows the large cranial and olfactory spaces that allow the dragon to hunt in the thick fog of the Pacific Northwest. Elwah Brown Dragon Foot The hind foot of the Elwah brown dragon allows for agile grappling of animals from the water. Elwah Brown Dragon Head The broad head of the Elwah brown dragon has a unique design similar to that of the Strigiformes order of birds commonly known as owls. It helps focus sound.
untouched Pacific coast ol I? as far south as: OR The Klwah brown dragon is the newest of the Great Dragon ecies to be discovered and studied by western naturalists, owed the brown dragon to remain relatively by human interference for most of its history, ating a very healthy habitat for the animal. Ranging as far north as Alaska and as far south as the coast of Oregon, the brown dragon has been sighted San Francisco and as far cast as Seattle. Falling under protected status for most of the 20th century, the ■vah brown dragon is second only to the Icelandic white dragon in population. It is believed that over 5,000 Klwah brown dragons are alive today, living off the abundant food supplies of the Pacific fish and whale populations. Hunting for Food Seals and porpoises that populate the Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca are a plentiful food supply for the Elwah brown dragon. Killer whales are also prey to the dragon. Elwah Brown Dragon Habitat Riding into the Elwah Dragon Sanctuary along the coast of the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The subtle brown tones of the region reveal the intricate textures that the dragon uses as its camouflage.
 Elwah Brown Dragon Nest The Elwah brown dragon is a social animal. Like its avian cousins, it will care for its young until they are old enough to leave the lair. Here a male has brought a harbor seal to a dragonlmg born earlier that spring. Elwah Brown Dragon Territory Like other Great Dragons, the Elwah brown dragon will use its fire breath to scorch the earth immediately surrounding its lair. Sheriff Johnson teaches us that this is done so new parents can better survey the landscape for predators such as wolves or coyotes that may attack their hatchlings. Elwah Brown Dragon Lair Concell inspects what Sheriff Johnson informs us is a vacant dragon lair.
History Although the Elwah brown dragon has been known by the Native American tribes of the Pacific Northwest for millennia, the first European account of the brown dragon took place in 1778. Captain Cooks third circumnavigation of the world brought his ship HMS Resolution to Vancouver Island for over a month of that year. The ship’s artist, John Webber, documented the dragon for the National Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge. It was this encounter that gave the dragon the first moniker of Webbers dragon. In 1805, Lewis and Clark arrived in the Pacific Northwest. It was from the accounts of this expedition that the misspelling of the dragon’s name was first made, and the dragon was officially classified in the I.innean system as “Elwah” in 1823. Early naturalists learned that the dragon was referred to by Native American tribes as the 'Ihunder-bird and played an important role in their spiritual celebrations. The lliunderbird represents the awesome power of nature and a respect for life. Referred to as a Kuhnuxwah in some Pacific Northwest languages, in other indigenous mythologies the dragon is able to shape-shift into human form. Unfortunately, many of the oral histories of these tribes have been lost forever. Ihe relative isolation and abundance of the Elway brown dragon made the great beast a favorite for American and European sport hunters. In 1909, former president Theodore Roosevelt shot three brown dragons during an expedition to the region. The president was an ardent supporter of the Elwah National Dragon Sanctuary, which was dedicated in 1917. In 1923 the Canadian government created the Canadian National Elwah Preserve, and today the International Elwah Dragon Sanctuary is the only international dragon preserve. In 1982, the Elwah National Dragon Sanctuary’s control was transferred to the Elwah Tribal Council, making it the only national park under the jurisdiction of a Native American tribe. Elwah Brown Dragon Totem The tnbes of the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia have revered the brown dragon for millennia. The Thunderbird is one of their most sacred animals.
Elwah Pottery, circa 18th Century Reconstruction of a brown dragon depicted on Native American pottery. Courtesy of the Ehvah Dragon Sanctuary Research Center. The Elwah Brown Dragon Dance The Elwah Dragon Sanctuary Research Center features traditional brown dragon dances. TrtJurf to Elwah Amulet Amulets like this one made of the claw of a brown dragon would be very important magical items owned by medicine men or tribal chiefs. Courtesy of the Elwah Dragon Sanctuary Research Center. Lewis and Clark Journal This page from the 1805 Lewis and Clark Expedition log shows a careful rendering of what must have been a brown dragon carcass. Whether the Native Americans hunted the animal is uncertain. Courtesy of the American Institute of Natural Sciences. New York. 135 V
 DRAGON 1 Create a Thumbnail Sketch Create a series of thumbnail sketches to help you settle on the pose and features you want to include in your piece. This is an important part of the planning process, so don’t overlook it. from our expedition, I begin a new painting of Elwah brown dragon in my studio. To help me illustrate the Elwahs unique characteristics, I first itemize what ant to include in my painting: • Distinctive Strigian body type (owl-like) Forked tail Tonal textures of the Pacific Northwest Mottled brown patterning
 2 Complete Preliminary Value Sketch For this painting, I decided to take one of the sketches that I did in the field as my design. Using a flatbed scanner I imported the drawing into a new grayscale Photoshop file: File > Import > Select > Scanner. Using broad flat brushes, l roughed in the forms with semiopaque paint to establish values. You can see how a generalized silhouette form of the dragon is developed and more detail is progressively carved out of this mass using texture brushes.
TUTORIAL: CREATING TEXT ~ Texture is an artistic term that ranges across all the disciplines and creative pursuits. Whether discussing the texture of a piece of music, sculpture, food or even landscape design, texture is a tangible, tactile quality that gives a work its dimension. Whether you work traditionally or digitally, texture will always play an important part in your work. It is texture, after all, that makes objects in your paintings appear natural. When all of the objects in a composition are rendered with the same texture, the image tends to have an artificial quality as if molded from plastic. This is a common tendency in digital painting since the computer is programmed to create the same effect with every brushstroke. Rendering texture digitally takes extra work to overcome the computers desire to create perfect gradients and shapes. Here are sample textures from my texture library that I use to add natural texture to my digital work. These are very simple to make, using modeling paste or construction caulk and then scanning the effects using a flatbed scanner. Textured objects and materials from around your home are also excellent. Look around and see what you can find! Digital Brushes One of the greatest tools granted the digital painter is an infinite number of brushes at your disposal at all times, and the ability to create your own custom brushes on demand. Working with the default brushes, you can toggle texture, scatter, dual brush and patterns to customize a brush set that will be uniquely your own.
 3Tone and Texture After altering the landscape design to include a small Elwah hatchling. I begin considering my colors. Changing the image mode to RGB. I use color balance to shift from black and white to warm browns. Since this image will be almost monochromatic. I try to concentrate on the subtle tonal shifts in the color scheme and a wide variety of textural brushes to define the forms. TONALITY Tonality (or tone), whether in music or painting, is the subtle variation of an element in a piece. In painting, it simply means the subtle variation of hue or color within a painting while staying within a muted gray range. You can have blue tones or red tones or in this case brown tones. Though the hue (color) shifts, the saturation stays low and the value does not shift. To express variations in texture and tone, concentrate on the subtle shifts in values. This can be a fairly complicated concept that requires practice. Go outside at night and let your eyes adjust to the darkness and try to look at the difference between the colors of forms. This is a great exercise in perceiving tones and shades. Notice that when the palette of this painting is desaturated into grayscale. the tonal range is almost imperceptible. Value scale of the finished painting.
it 4 Develop the Background and Facial Features Developing the image with a limited color palette forces me to rely on brush textures and contrast. Subtle tones of brown differentiate the forms. Cool browns with hints of blue define the stone, green-hued tones define the trees, while the dragon itself is made of the warmest red-brown tones. In the detail of the dragon's face the sharpest value contrasts In the image help draw the viewer's eye to the focal point. 140

Dragon Taxonomic Chart PENNADRACOFORME (Feathered Dragon!:) ORCADRACOFORME (Marine Dragons) - QUETZECOATYLIDAE DRACIMEXIDAE (Coatyls) CETUSIDAE (Feydragons) (Sea Lions) WYVERIDAE DRAGONIGUILLIDAE (Wyverns) (Sea Serpents) VOLUCRISIDAE (Dragonettes) AMPHIPTERIDAE (Amphitere) 142
CLASS ORDER * FAMILY GENUS SPECIES
Dragon Anatomy All eight species of Great Dragons within the family Draco-rexidae have a similar anatomy. This is what defines them as a group. All the species have six limbs, hollow bones, binocular vision and an elongated tail. First classified in the v Systcma Naturae in 1735 by Carl Linnaeus. strength to bite through a full-grown killer whale. This is ten times more powerful than an adult Nile crocodile. Note also the large cavities for olfactory. ocular and auditory perception. Dragon Tooth The teeth of the Great Dragon are generally small in comparison to its body. The dragon's primary weapon is Its powerful beak that it uses like a meat hook to tear at flesh. The teeth are used for slicing and chewing meat from the bone, so they are small and serrated like steak knives. 144
Dragon Foot The dragon claws serve multiple functions: grappling prey, teanng. as well as agile climbing along the cliffs of its home. Dragon Eye All Great Dragons possess powerful eyesight that functions both penpherally and bmocularty. Their eyes are small, and bony ridges above and below the eye allow air to flow around and not directly into it while in flight. Most Great Dragon species possess a clear secondary eyelid, similar to sharks and eagles, that closes over the eye during «eeceeoec-
Appendix 3 Dragon Flight A mystery that has surrounded Great Dragons for centuries has always been their ability to fly. How such a massive creature is able to become airborne mystified scientists and biologists until the 18th century when dragon llight was studied and understood. Some early treatises surmised that a dragon contained a bladder of lighter-than-air gas that created buoyancy similar to a balloon, while others contended that dragon llight was only possible through the use of magic. 'I he truth behind a dragon’s flight is none of these, but pure science. The first aspect to explaining dragon flight is the structure of dragon bones, which arc intricate webbed honeycombs that reduces the weight of the bones by almost 50 percent. Similar to a bird’s bones, they are light and strong, thus reducing the amount of lift required to take flight. A second factor of dragon flight is the wing surface area. The surface area of a dragon’s wings is quite large compared to other flying creatures, especially when considering that the wings themselves comprise only about 60 percent of the lifting area. This phenomenon is based upon the structure of the dragon scales. Serving a greater purpose than protection, the scales (aerodentides) also provide what is called “dragon microlift.” This evolutionary trait is very similar to that of a shark’s skin, where tiny serrated surfaces actually reduce the drag and create lift over the body. Only recently have scientists understood that the aerodenticles of dragons are a type of protofeather, a hybrid between scales and feathers that have also been discovered in the dragons distant cousin, the dinosaur. A dragon is able to bristle its scales at takeoff and landing, creating hundreds of small lifting surfaces, effectively increasing its surface area almost twofold. This allows dragons to reduce their minimum air speed, not fall out of the sky, and maintain dexterity while in flight. I his increased surface area reduces the necessity of wing-flapping, making the muscles required to move the wings fairly small. When soaring, the scales flatten to create a smoother surface, increasing air speed. Dragon microlift has only begun to be understood by scientists and is now being tested on man-made flying platforms. Third, the larger species of dragons always lift off from a high perch facing into the wind and/or at a running speed Muybridge's Dragon in Right. 1879 The scientific knowledge of dragon flight and locomotion was greatly advanced by the pioneering photographic studies of Muybridge in the late 19th century. This series of photographs of a jndinavian blue dragon was the first documented photography of dragon flight. Courtesy of
in order to create velocity. This practice is also seen in large species of birds like the albatross. Most of the Great Dragons will stay grounded during periods of low wind. Dragons never allow themselves to land in low country or heavily forested regions where the winds and/or their wingspan would be hindered. These terrains are left to flightless dragons like wyrms, hydras and drakes. Great Dragons live along seaside cliffs where the ocean breezes create almost perpetual high winds. Once airborne, dragons tend to soar on the wind and thermal updrafts, hunting in flight, and returning to their high perch or nest with their catch. During periods of extended low wind Great Dragons often descend to the water to feed and then climb back up to their lairs. Most recently scientists have discovered that the size of the dragons brain that aids in its ability to fly. The flocculus is the part of the brain that regulates balance and aids in orienting a dragon in the air. Because of the size and complexity of a Great Dragons wings, millions of nerves controlling thousands of muscle movements a minute are all regulated by the flocculus which needs to be oversized. The Great Dragons consequently have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of any animal. Aerodenticles The specifically designed aerodenticle scales aid a dragon's (tight by creating microlift across the surface of the dragon s body. Wingspan The wingspan of a Great Dragon is approximate to a WWII-era heavy bomber. .i
Dragon Poses To better understand dragon art and to portray dragons realistically, it is necessary to understand the fundamental poses of dragons. Established for use in heraldry during the medieval period, there are eight standard poses that art referred to throughout this book. They are as follows: Dragon Dormant Dragon Couchant Dragon Passant Visit impact-books.com/greatdragons for awesome bonus materials from Dracopedia author William O’Connor! Dragon Rampant 148

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Composition: A general term regarding the arrangement of forms and elements in an artistic work. Contrast: The juxtaposition of opposing qualities in elements (e.g., black vs. white, rough vs. smooth, straight vs. curved, blue vs. orange). Countershading: The transitioning of an object's value to increase its contrast against an adjacent value. Ébauche: (French) A semiopaque underpainting of color. Focal point: The point in a pictorial composition to which the viewer's attention is drawn. Form: The shape of an element in a composition. Format: The general outer dimensions of a composition. Synonym: aspect ratio. French easel: A folding easel for painting outdoors, first invented in the 19th century and made famous by the Impressionists. Fulcrum: The point in a pictorial composition upon which the arrangement balances. Glaze: 1. In traditional painting, the use of transparent, thin color to tint. 2. In digital painting, see: overlay. Ground: In traditional art. the prepared form of a surface (e.g., gesso). Hatching: The use of interlacing lines in drawing or painting to create texture and form. Also: crosshatching. Hue: 1. An object's appearance on the ultraviolet spectrum. Commonly synonymous with color. 2. Term used in manufactured paints when a hazardous pigment has been replaced, but the color has remained the same (e.g.. Cobalt Blue hue). Impasto: The use of thick paint. Linear perspective: The use of measured lines and vanishing points to create the illusion of space. Local color: The general color of an object without reference to value or chroma. Medium: Any material used to make art (e.g.. digital, oil. pencil, ink). Mode: In digital art. a layer or brush's ability to interact with any other function (e.g.. in Photoshop: Normal. Multiply. Color Dodge, Overlay. Lighten). Mottling/mottle: 1. Art. To paint using blotches or patches of color that, when viewed as a whole, are more natural than a single flat color. 2. Biology. The ability of animals to create complex camouflage patterns. Multiply: Digital term referring to a mode of layer or brush that compounds the current work with any previous work. Negative space: The forms created outside and around the positive elements in a composition. Sometimes referred to as empty space or open space. Notan: (Japanese) Art of composing black and white forms to create imagery. Opaque/opacity: Traditional or digital reference to paint, layer or object that cannot be seen through or does not allow light to pass through. See also: semiopaque, transparent, translucent. Antonym: transparent. Overlay: Digital mode of layer or paint by which color is added without compounding its shading effect on previous work. See also: glaze. Pen: 1. Any drawing instrument that uses ink. 2. A digital drawing instrument used with a tablet or screen. Synonym: stylus. Pencil: Any drawing instrument that uses a hardened graphite or earth material to create linear marks. Colors and textures vary widely.

INDEX Acadia. 14-15 . Acadian green dragon. 12-13 • behavior. 18-19 ' . biolog>’. 16-17 demonstration. 22-27 flying displays. 19 habitat. 18 ! history. 20-21 , ' mating dances. 19 names. 13 plumage. 17 range of. 14 sleeping pose. 19 Adobe Photoshop. 10.25,39,122. See afso Brushes, digital: Color: Layers: Modes: Paint color specifications. 42.57 grayscale drawings. 25.39.55.71.87. 102.137 resizing images. 41.57 Aerodenticles. 147 Art studio, portable. 8 Atmosphere, and color. 88 Background. 26.40-41.58.74.90.140 architecture. 103,105-106 Black dragon. See Cnmean black dragon Blue dragon. See Scandinavian blue dragon Brown dragon. See Elwah brown dragon Brushes custom. 138 digital. 11.27.55.120-121.137-138 texture. 119.137 Camera, as toot. 8 Chalk. 9 China. 110-111 Chinese yellow dragon. 108-109 behavior. 114-115 biology. 112-113 demonstration. 118-125 feet. 112 head variations. 117 history. 116-117 mane and facial features. 113 names. 108 Color, 105. See also Hues: Tints balancing, 58. 73.89.105.139 base. 25,57. 73.89.105 complementary. 43.73 developing. 42 establishing. 73 local. 25.89.106 principles of. 88 tonal. 119 on. 56.70-71 ? balanced. 22 fMEJornputers. 10-11,55 Contrast. 26-27. 73.140 Corel Painter. 10 Countershading. 41 Crimea. 94-95,98.100 Crimean black dragon, 92-93 behavior. 98-99 biology. 96-97 demonstration. 102-107 head. 97 history. 100-101 lairs. 99 names. 92 da Vinci's wing. 85 Demonstrations Acadian green dragon. 22-27 Chinese yellow dragon. 118-125 Cnmean black dragon. 102-107 Elwah brown dragon. 136-141 Icelandic white dragon. 38-43 Ligurian gray dragon. 86-91 Scandinavian blue dragon. 54-59 Welsh red dragon. 70-75 Detail. 27.41.43.57.59. 75.91.107.125. 141 Digital painting. 120-121 tutorial. 122 Dragon fire . 72,124 Dragons anatomy of. 23,49.144-145 eggs. 16.33.49.64.81.96.112.131 eyes. 145 feet. 112.145 and flight, 146-147 hatchlings. 48.99.131 juveniles. 33.65 poses. 148-149 skulls. 52.113.131.144 taxonomy. 142-143 teeth. 83.144 Dragon's Breath (flower). 30 Elwah brown dragon, 126-127 behavior. 132-133 biology. 130-131 demonstration. 136-141 feet. 131 habitat and terntory, 132-133 head and skull. 131 history. 134-135 huntir^. 132 lairs, 133 names, 126 nests. 133 Ebauche. 42,58 Eraser tool. 119 Expeditions Acadian. 14-15 Chinese. 110-111 Crimean, 94-95 Elwah. 128-129 Icelandic. 30-31 Ligurian. 78-79 Scandinavian. 46-47 Welsh. 62-63 Fire, dragon. 72.124 Focal point. 107.125 Foreshortening. 102.104 Fulcrum, locating. 56 Glossary. 154-155 Golden Section. 56 Gradation. 24 Gray dragon. See Ligurian gray dragon Green dragon. See Acadian green dragon Hatching (with pencil). 24 Heraldry, medieval. 148 Highlights. 87 Hues variations in, 139 of white. 38 Iceland. 30-31.34 Icelandic white dragon, 28-29 behavior. 34-35 biology. 32-33 color and markings. 32 demonstration. 38-43 history. 36-37 horns, 33 mating habits. 35 names. 28 nests. 35 sleeping pose. 35 Impasto paint texture, 58 Italy (Italian Riviera). 78-79.82 Keyboards, for computer. 11 Layers. 120.138 of color. 58.73 creating new. 23.25-26.58.106.119. 121 of details. 57 digital painting with. 122 for reference photos. 103 semitransparent. 42.58 Light sources, 72 Lighting and color. 88 practicing. 74
Lighting effects, 71-72 Liguria, 78-79,82 Ligurian gray dragon, 76-77 behavior. 82-83 biology, 80-81 demonstration. 86-91 frills, face and neck. 80,85 history. 84-85 names. 76 sunbathing. 83 teeth. 83 wings. 81 Lines directional. 56 working with. 24 Materials, for drawing, 8-9 Medieval stave church. 53 Modes color dodge. 124 digital painting with. 122 multiply. 26.90.106.119.123 normal. 25. 73.89.106.123 and opacity. 58.119.123 RGB. 25.42.57. 73.89,105.139 Mouse, for computer. 11 Narwhals. 37 Negative space. 119 Paint opaque. 26.58,74 semiopaque, 137 Paper, watercolor. 8 Patterns. 56 Pencils, 9 drawing with, 24 Pens.9 Perspective atmospheric. 26.90.104,106 forced, 41 linear, 103-104 Photoshop. See Adobe Photoshop Pinwheeling, 56 Positive space. 119 Printers. 11 Red dragon. See Welsh red dragon Scandinavia. 46-47 Scandinavian blue dragon. 44-45.146 behavior, 50-51 biology. 48-49 color variations. 49 demonstration. 54-59 eating habits. 51 fishing. 51 history, 52-53 hunting. 51 names. 45 Scanners, 11.137 Sculpture, practicing lighting with. 74 Shading. 41 Shadows.26.87.90.106 Sketchbooks, 8,11 Sketching. 22-24.38.54-55.69-70.86-87, 102-103.118.136 digital. 39.55.87 Software. 10-11. See also Adobe Photoshop Stalker cottages, 63 Studio setup. 10 Stylus, for digital painting. 10-11 Tablets, digital. 11 Taxonomic chart, dragons. 142-143 Texture. 42.58.139,141 creating. 138 layering. 138 tonal. 74 Texture brushes. 119.137 Tints. 38 Tonality, 139 Tone. 139.141 Tools. 8-9 digital. 10-11 Tutorials Composition Basics. 56 Creating Texture, 138 Digital Painting With Modes and Layers. 122-123 Dragon Fire! Lighting Effects and Light Sources. 72 Drawing Basics, 24 Perspective. 104 Principles of Color, 88 White-on-Whtte. 40 Ukraine, 94-95 Underpainting. 25.42. 71.119-120 Value of color. 26.40-41. 73.137 contrast in. 140 shifts in. 139 Value scale. 139 Value sketch. 137 Viking helmet. 53 Vitruvian dragon. 85 Wales. 62-63,66 Washington (state), 128-129 Welsh red dragon. 60-61.144-145

Photo by Conceil Delacroix Dracopedia The Great Dragons. Copyright 2012 by William O’Connor. Manufactured in China. All rights reserved. No part ofthis book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means including information storage and retrieval systems without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review. Published by IM PACT Books, an imprint of F+W Media. Inc.. 10151 Carver Road #200, Blue Ash. Ohio. *15242. (800) 289-0963. First Edition. Other fine IMPACT products are available from your favorite bookstore, art supply store or online supplier. Visit our website fJlddid at www.fwmcdia.com. 16 15 14 13 12 5 4 3 2 1 DISTRIBUTED IN CANADA BY FRASER DIRECT !(K> Armstrong Avenue Georgetown, ON, Canada I.7G 5S4 Tel: (905)877-4411 DISTRIBUTED IN Tl IF. U.K. AND EUROPE BY F&W MEDIA INTERNATIONAL. LTD Brunei House, Horde Close, Newton Abbott TQ12 4PU, UK Tel: (+44) 1626 323200, Fax: (+44) 1626 323319 Email: enquiries@fwmcdia.com ABOUT THE AUTHOR William O’Connor is an illustrator, concept artist, fine artist and teacher. He has executed more than 3,000 illustrations for companies such as Wizards of the Coast, Blizzard Entertainment, Lucasfilm, HarperCollins and Activision. He has been a guest lecturer and instructor at the duCret School of Art and the Huntington School of Fine Arts. He has won over thirty awards for his artwork and received four Chesley nominations. He is a member of the Graphic Artists Guild, the Association of Science Fiction and Fantasy Artists, and the American Showcase of Illustration. O’Connor is the author of IMPACT’S best-selling Dracopedia and his work has appeared in six editions of the Spectrum: The Beit in Contemporary Fantastic Art series. Visit his website wocstudios.com and blogwilliamoconnorstudios.blogspot.com. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The making of a book like Dracopedia The Great Dragons takes the effort of many people. I would like to thank all of the wonderful hosts in all of the countries I visited for their hospitality and courtesy to Gonceil and myself. Special thanks go to the entire IMPACT staff without whom this expedition would not have been possible, especially Pam Wissman, Sarah Liichas and Wendy Dunning for their extraordinary work of taking my sketches and notes and transforming them into a beautiful book. Kathy Sobansky for her translation of Ukrainian and Holly Johnson tor her exceptional knowledge of taxonomy. I would also like to thank the World Dragon Protection Fund and the American Institute of Natural Sciences for their valuable support. Finally to Conceil Delacroix without whom I would never have been able to make this trip. DISTRIBU TED IN AUSTRALIA BY CAPRICORN LINK P.O. Box 704, S. Windsor NSW. 2756 Australia Tel: (02)4577-3555 Edited by Sarah Laichas Designed by Wendy Dunning Production coordinated by Mark Griffin
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ACADIAN GREEN DRAGON Dracorexus acadius
SCANDINAVIAN BLUE DRAGON Dracorexus sotijenjjorclus CELANDIC I IT E DRAGON trexus reykjavikus LIGURIAN GRAY DRAGON Dracorexus ligurius WELSH RED DRAGON Dracorexus idraigoxus DRAGONS OF THE WORLD
ID CRIMEAN BLACK ' A DRAGON Dracorexus crimeus CHINESE YELLOW DRAGON Dracorexus cathidaeus
 , ' I An artists Field Guide to the world’s Great Dragons! CREATURES OF GREAT BEAUTY and terrible ferocity, dragons have been feared and revered for centuries. Of the thousand-plus species still in existence, none have inspired more folklore and artistic awe than the eight species of Great Dragons. Within these pages, these fire-breathing monsters of legend— the rock stars of the dragon world—come to life through the work of artist and adventurer William O’Connor. Not since the original Dracopedia has there been such a beautifully illustrated and meticulously researched guide on the subject, with special focus on the distinctive features of each species—from the broad horns of the Icelandic white dragon to the elaborate neck frills of the Ligurian gray. Based on the authors expeditions to sanctuaries around the globe and consults with prominent regional experts, Dracopedia The Great Dragons presents never-before assembled facts and instruction to help you capture the heart-beating grandeur of these magnificent monsters. Inside, find everything you need to know to capture the essence of your favorite dragons through your artwork: • Learn about the habits, anatomy and natural history of 8 fierce and fantastic dragons • Each profile features sketches, drawings and start-to-finish creation of a stunning artwork, illustrating key concepts that apply to any medium ■ Discover special techniques for achieving dramatic lighting effects, powerful compositions and the incredible sculptural forms and textures of dragons Includes a gallery of dragons and a foldout comparison poster 035313651786



 DRAC0P6DIA rr Hi c DRAGONS An Artist's Fielt> Guibe anD draining Journal William O'Connor IMPACT CcsC^NATl Cfi>0 www. i mpact-books.com
Introduction 6 Drawing Materials 8 Digital Painting Tools 10 Acadian Dragon Dracorextis acadius Great Dragon of the rugged Maine seacoast 12 Icelandic Dragon Dracorexus reykjavikus Great Dragon of the frozen north 28 Scandinavian dragon Dracorexus songenjjordus Cobalt and azure-scaled dragon of the northern fjords 44 WELSH DRAGON Dracorexus idraigoxus Legendary dragon of European folklore and legend 60 Ligurian Dragon Dracorexus cinqaterrus Rarest and most beautiful of the Great Dragons 76 Crimean Dragon Dracorexus crimeaus Great Dragon of the black Sea and Eastern Europe 92
Chinese dragon Dracorexus cathidaeus Majestic dragon king of Asia and the Yellow Sea elwah dragon Dracorexus klallaminus Majestic dragon god of the Pacific Northwest Appendix 1: Dragon Taxonomic Chart 142 Appendix 2: Dragon Anatomy Appendix 3: Dragon Flight 146 Appendix 4: Dragon Poses HiAl NolC' Glossary 154 Index About the Author 159 i*"
IntrodutMU] CaKceU To help me on my journey 1 recruited the aid of my faithful apprentice, Conceil Delacroix, whom 1 met while he was studying art history at the College of New York. For several years Conceil has been a great help in my studio in New York. Fluent in English. French and Italian, Conceil will be a priceless resource in my transcontinental journey. We have packed our many supplies for the World Dragon Expedition, and soon depart New York for one year. Together we set off for the dragon adventure ot our lives! f WARNING FOR DRAGON ENTHUSIASTS f Dragons are not pets. The expeditions and adventures described in this book have been performed under the guidance of trained observers, experts and draconologists. The author encourages all readers to be forewarned that dragons are extremely dangerous and unpredictable animals that should never be approached or harassed. Severe injury and death may be inflicted by these animals in their natural habitats. Dragons are predatory wild animals. Intrusion into their nesting grounds, threatening of their young and startling behavior are all natural catalysts for dragon attacks. They are merely acting upon their instincts. 6 -J#_
^»weoaggooooeQaiegciy/xcacc^caaa^^ INTRODUCTION . i There are over one thousand species of dragons living on all seven continents and in each of the four oceans of the world. Most of us have seen many of these animals in zoological gardens or nature museums, and some of you may even keep some small domestic species in your home. But no animal in the world has inspired more folklore and stimulation to the human imagination than the eight species of Great Dragons. The eight known species are the largest members of the Draco order of all animals existing within the family Dracorexidae; they collectively make up the genus of Dracorexus. The common biology to all the species is that they have six limbs (four legs and two wings), are capable of aerial and terrestrial locomotion, possess hollow bone structure, lay eggs and arc capable of breathing fire. In short, they are the fire-breathing dragons of legend, except that they arc not a myth. In every culture there is a tradition of a great fire-breathing dragon. From the beginning of time the eight Great Dragon species have not only inspired our imagination but helped form the very cultures with which they coexist. Perhaps because humans and dragons inhabit the same regions that the evolution of human history is intertwined so inexorably with that of the dragons. Several years ago I decided to seek out these amazing creatures for myself, an expedition that had never before been undertaken by any naturalist artist. I aimed to circumnavigate the world in order to draw from life and observe the Great Dragons in their natural environment, all the while meeting with and engaging with the societies and cultures that had for so long lived alongside these amazing monsters. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK Dracopedia, Vie Great Dragons serves two primary functions. First, as a field guide to understanding these majestic creatures and gaining a better understanding of the varied and textural societies that have coexisted with them for millennia. Second, as an artists handbook on some of the fundamental artistic skills that should be explored to better create the art of dragons. I hope that everyone with a love of dragons—whether zoological, historical, cultural or artistic—finds something useful and inspiring within these pages.
NG MATERIALS: WORKING IN THE FIELD When working as an artist in the field, weight is of paramount importance. Everything you need will have to he :ed in as there are no art supply stores in the back country. Here’s a checklist of typical gear Conceil and I will carrying on the expedition: □ Sketchbook (9" x 12" [23cm x 30cm] that fits easily into a backpack). I prefer spiral-bound because they will lie fiat on the scanner when 1 get back to the studio □ Pencils and erasers □ Binoculars □ Topographical trail map □ Walking stick Photo Reference A camera is a very important tool as well, in order to get detailed reference of the environments you are exploring. Watercolor Paper The style of paper surface you choose will affect the look of your work. A very smooth paper like vellum will allow you to achieve highly detailed effects, while coarse paper will result in more textured effects. For drawing l suggest using a paper with a heavy weight (or poundage). This number indicates the weight of 500 sheets of 20" x 26” (51cm x 66cm) paper. The higher the poundage, the heavier the paper. Drawing paper is usually 50 to 100 pounds (105gsm to 210gsm). The size of your paper is also important. Try to work as targe as you can. For sketching. 9" x 12" (23cm x 30cm) should be a minimum, while finished drawings should be at least 14" x 18“ (36cm x 46cm)
Overhand Grip This grip is a common way to hold the pencil white sketching and is good for shading. Hold the pencil in a way that Is most comfortable for you. Clutch Pencil and Lead Holder When traveling this is my drafting tool of choice, usually consisting of metal casing with a claw at one end for holding a 2mm pencil lead. For decades this has been the standard for drafting and professional drawing. I have never needed to replace mine in 20 years of heavy use traveling around the world. Although less expensive plastic models available, buy a good all-metal one and you'll have It for the rest life. The required lead sharpener for this item is an additional but it creates a flawlessly sharp tip to any lead loaded into When traveling, this pencil can be difficult to find replacement leads outside of an art supply shop, so bring extras. The weight of lead denotes a pencil s hardness or softness, with as the softest and 6H as the hardest. The softer the lead, the darker the marks the pencil can make. An excellent medium for rendering used throughout this book is the combination of black and white chalk on toned paper. The great attrac tion of these materials is the ability to render form and volume quickly and effectively. Chalk comes in a variety of forms and colors including earth tone shades. The brown paper I like to use is simple packing paper that can be bought in rolls very inexpensively in drug stores or office supply shops. It is durable and can be cut to custom sizes. This is a highly recommended medium for students to practice with.
Digital Painting TOOLS Today there is a wide variety of tools available to the digital painter. Adobe* Photoshop' and Corel“ Painter " are the most commonly used and available combined with either a tablet or a tablet monitor as well as a keyboard and mouse. Setting yourself up with the tools necessary' to begin digital painting is far less expensive in the long run than traditional art mediums. As I often explain to my students on the first day of digital painting class, the stylus is the last piece of art supply you will ever need to purchase. Inside that little pen is every brush in the world, every pencil, every tube of paint and every piece of paper you will ever need. You can paint for days and months on end and never need to wash a brush, scrape a palette or sharpen a pencil. You will never run out of a color or need to run to the store for something you forgot. COMPUTER AND SOFTWARE This is really a personal choice. I use an Apple, as this is the art industry standard. The biggest you can afford is ideal, but remember that whatever you buy will become obsolete in about 36 months, so calculate that into your budget. Adobe Photoshop is my personal choice of software, although I do use Corel Painter occasionally. Unless stated otherwise, all references in this book are to Photoshop. Please be sure to purchase a full version of any software, and most importantly, never pirate a copy of software. Not only is it illegal, it’s unprofessional. If cost is a concern, purchase an older version of software and then upgrade in the future. My Studio Mien heading home from an excursion it is essential for every artist to have a studio. Even if you have very little room, try to dedicate a private space as your own where you can create. Every studio is different and every studio is customized for the needs of each artist. I have had many studios in my career, and all of them have been unique for my work at the time. I do not require as much space for my oil paintings and reference books as I used to. Now. the focal point of my studio is my computer and my top priority a comfortable and creative working environment. Without concern of paint splatter or turpentine spills and with my picture reference, music library and painting catalog now digitized, it is more study than studio. My workshop where I oil paint and sculpt is a separate workspace. 10
Tablet and Stylus Tablets range in size and go up exponentially in price as they go up in size. I use a medium-sized tablet since it fits comfortably onto my tablet easel. Today there are tablet-screens, but for me they have not become cost effective yet. Notice that I have the tablet propped up on a stand. This makes for a much more comfortable and natural painting position without having to slouch over the desk. KEYBOARD AND MOUSE I have a 12 year old keyboard that I love. It makes a great clack-clack noise and has survived years of brutal punishment. My keyboard is set up to my right because I am left-handed. This allows me to keystroke and paint at the same time. Printer and Scanner Buy the largest printer and llatbed scanner you can afford. Prints of your digital imagery will only be as good as your paper and printer. Make sure to calculate ink costs before investing. A good scanner is recommended for scanning your drawings, paintings, textures and found objects. Other Important Tools Always keep a sketchbook and don’t leave home without it. Document everything and don’t throw anything away. As you can see, I keep a dream wall above my computer and a bulletin board to my right so I am always surrounded with inspirational work and notes from my travels and by artist colleagues. Outside my studio is a comfy chair. Its the one constant in every studio I have ever had. This is where the real work gets done. 11 XSOQCOCOOCCCCCXMCOeOOOCXN

X. SPECIFICATIONS Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/D.Acadius Size: 50' to 75' (15m to 23m) Wingspan: 85' (26m) Weight: 17.000 lbs. (7700kg) Recognition: Bright green markings, feathered frill plumage, nasal and chin horns on males: pale green and yellow markings and no horns on females Habitat: Northeastern North Amenca coastal regions Conservation status: Endan gered Also known as: Green dragon. American dragon. Skogeso dragon. Groendraak
 Acadian Expedition Before leaving on our expedition to see Acadian green dragons in the wild, Conceil and 1 made a stop to see the country’s most famous dragon in captivity, Phineus. Fort Tryon Park Zoo in upper Manhattan is home to Phineus, a 140 year old Acadian green dragon that has lived in New York for over a century. In 1857, P.T. Barnum acquired four Acadian green dragon hatchlings, which he placed in his American Museum in New York. When the museum burned down in 1865, two of the small dragons were killed. The remaining dragons were taken on tour with Barnum for over a decade on the P.T. Barnum Grand Traveling Museum and Menagerie. In 1888, Barnum donated one of the dragons to the London Zoo, but it then quickly got sick and died in 1889. I he last dragon was donated to the New York Zoo in 1891 upon Barnums death and named Phineus in honor of its benefactor. A beautiful Victorian dragon house was built for Phineus and he quickly became the central attraction. By the 1960s, however, the New York Zoo, the dragon house and Phineus the Dragon W OP F lluxbor Vermont Humpshi Habitat of the Acadian Green Dragon' Massachusetts t*rvscnl R: Arlan tic Ocean Range of the Acadian Dragon
The WlndDragon Our home for the Acadian expedition was a one masted sailboat, the WindDragon. This 19th century sloop allowed us to navigate around the archipelago of Acadia National Dragon Preserve to observe and draw the dragons that live there. Phineus, who had been living in a small cramped concrete pit for over 70 years, were all in bad repair. In 1972, the newly formed World Dragon Fund used Phineus as their poster dragon to raise funds for the protection of dragons. In 1978, a new dragon enclosure was built for Phineus, and his health and attendance at the park dramatically improved. Today, Phineus is the only great dragon alive in captivity in America. After our visit, Conceil and I departed New York for our first destination on our journey of the World’s Great Dragons—Bar Harbor, Maine. This is home to the Acadia National Dragon Preserve, a large stretch of coastal land protected for the Acadian dragon to use as its nesting grounds. From New York City we travel to Boston and then on to Mt. Desert Island where we will spend a couple of weeks traveling with Captain Avery Winslow of the sloop WindDragon. He will be our guide while wre study and draw the dragons of this region. 15
11" I begins looking for a new lair where he begins a family of his own. Green dragons are extremely long lived, with the oldest specimen, Mowhak, having been first reported in 1768. The hibernation habits of the Acadian green dragon contribute to its longevity. It is believed that a dragon may sleep more than two-thirds of its life, slowing its metabolism for months. Older dragons can enter a kind of torpor and can last years without eating. A mature Acadian green dragon male can weigh up to 17,000 pounds (7700kg) and needs to eat over 150 pounds (70kg) of meat per day. The primary food for the Acadian green dragon is small whales and porpoises, while larger dragons have been known to catch and carry off full-grown killer whales. The Acadian green dragon is the largest dragon species in North America, growing up to 75’ (23m) in length with a wingspan over 85' (26m). The eggs are hatched by the female only once every five years in small clutches of one to three eggs. The female and male live together in a lair on the seashore where the male hunts for food in the ocean while the female guards the lair and her young from predators. The high sea cliffs that are the common home to all the Great Dragon species of the world provide many advantages. The high windswept perch enables the dragons to take flight easily, with the dragonlings only learning to fly in their third year. The remote cave rookeries or lairs allow protection for the nearly defenseless dragonlings until they learn to fly. The male dragonling then leaves the cave and
Acadian Green Dragon Plumage The Acadian green dragon is one of the few Great Dragon species that has feathers. The male produces bright display plumage to attract females. The nasal bom grows brighter red during mating season. Tite female dragon has dull, mottled colors to camouflage herself. Acadian Green Dragon Male Overhead. Wingspan 85' (26m) Acadian Green Dragon Female Overhead. Wingspan 85' (26m) Acadian Green Dragon Egg. 18" (46cm) Acadian females can lay up to three eggs at a time once every five years.
Behavior The Acadian green dragon, like its other Great Dragon cousins, makes its habitat along rocky shorelines. The mary diet of the Acadian is the prolific whales and cetaceans of the North Atlantic Ocean, especially killer and t whales that migrate to the southern waters in the fall, male builds a nest in a rocky cave or outcropping overlooking the sea and begins a complicated mating the late summer. 18
 Mating Dances The dragons of Acadia put on dramatic mating dances using complex songs and wing displays. At night their fire light illuminates the sty. Overlooking Shores A large male surveying his terntory. Males fluff their feathered frills and make elaborate throaty songs that echo across the inlets and bays. Flying Displays During the mating season Acadian green dragons often fly in pairs showing off for one another. This young bull circled an uninterested female for an hour before she finally sent him away with a puff of fire breath.
History The first recorded account of a green dragon was in 1602 when English explorer Bartholomew Gosnold, while mapping New England, reported sighting “a large dragon species inhabiting many of the harborsIt is under stood that dragons had lived for millennia along the New England coast line of North America ranging as far north as Newfoundland and as far south as the Hudson River Valley. The Penobscot tribe of Maine referred to the green dragon as Skogeso, and the early Dutch settlers in New York named the dragon Groendraak. Early colonists found the dragons to be abundant, and there are accounts by early whalers that the green dragon would often swoop down and take captured whales right off their harpoons. Despite these encounters, the green dragon became a source of pride for early Americans and was often used as a standard during the revolution for strength and independence. Bunker Hill overlooking Boston had at one time been the site of a dragon lair. Benjamin Franklin proposed that the green dragon become the national emblem, but it lost out to the bald eagle. In the 19th century the whaling and fishing industries decimated the food fish and whale stocks causing the dragon population to decrease dramatically. The industrialization of many seashore cities like Boston, Portsmouth and Newr Haven also destroyed much of the nesting grounds of the green dragon. By World War 11, there were fewer than 100 green dragons still living, and many biologists feared its extinction. In 1972 the World Dragon Fund and the Green Dragon Trust were founded to help raise awareness of the dire situation of the green dragon. In 1993 the Federal Park Service opened Acadia National Dragon Preserve in Maine, a protected dragon marine sanctuary adjacent to Acadia National Park. Since then, other shorelines have become dragon preserves, but inside the Acadia Preserve the green dragon has been able to flourish. Today, with similar controls on whaling, the green dragons numbers have improved. 19th Century Dragoners Harpoon Captain Avery explained that during the 19th century, whalers were often confronted with dragons stealing their precious catches, in response, dragon hunting became an important aspect of the whaling trade. Courtesy of the New England Dracono-IcgicaJ Society.
7foe Green. Mwwvtaut Lodge Captain Winslow has been a fountain of information regarding the history of the Acadian green dragon. We have spent many hours cruising the beautiful islands being regaled by his stories. He tells us that at one time Cadillac Mountain, which stands about 1,500‘ (457m) over Mount Desert Island, was called the Green Mountain because of all the Acadian green dragons that made their nests at its peak. Its summit became a popular tourist destination for Victorians to come and view the dragons. Eventually, a grand lodge known as the Green Mountain Hotel was built on top of the summit. In 1895, the hotel burned to the ground. No one has ever attempted to build on top of the peak since. DONT TREAD ON ME Symbolic Value Used as a standard of freedom, the Acadian green dragon has been a symbol of America since its founding. Courtesy of the New England Draconological Institute. Boston. An Acadian Tavern During the American Revolution, the American dragon was a symbol of strength and freedom. The Green Dragon Tavern in Boston is called “The Headquarters of the Revolution" and was where the Boston Tea Party was planned. J.R.R. Tolkein placed a tavern called the Green Dragon in Bywater outside of Hob-biton in his legendary Lord of the Rings books. An Acadian Glyph An early Native American petroglyph of an Acadian green dragon, circa 1400 a.d. Courtesy of the New England Draconological Institute. Boston.
DEMONSTRATION Acadian Green Dragon Back in my studio, I begin to plan a large-scale painting of the Acadian green dragon. 1 start by going through the dozens of sketches and studies 1 executed on Mt. Desert Island. I then sketch a rough design to establish a basic balanced composition that will capture the grandeur of the i Acadian green dragon. My goal is to include these qualities learned in previous studies: • Green markings • Maritime environment • Feathered rutile on crown 1 Complete a Thumbnail Sketch Begin with several thumbnail sketches to establish composition. forms and proportions. Be fluid and experimental at this stage since almost all of this work will be covered by subsequent work. Remember that drawing is a process, not a stepby-step science. In this example, I pictured the dragon standing haughtily on the precipice like a lion, and attempted to capture that proud body language. 22
2 Do a Final Drawing Once you've established the basic silhouette and forms of the design, flesh out the details of the dragon and add other elements of interest to finalize your composition. It's here that the anatomy studies done on location in Marne come in handy. In my initial design I had made some anatomical changes that needed to be remedied. I want to emphasize that changes are normal. It's part of the process of drawing. One of the things that I find discourages students is that they get frustrated when an image doesn't work on the first try. Don't give up. As an artist, you will always make many alterations and changes to your images before you're satisfied with the results. 3 Adjust the Anatomy and Pose As I developed the drawing, I made corrections to the dragon’s anatomy and pose. I adjusted the shape of the head by adding a new layer, then drawing on top of my initial work. I also added a second dragon in the background and a killer whale carcass at the bottom of the dragon's feet.
 TUTORIAL: DRAWING BASICS The pencil is no doubt the first and the most important drawing implement the artist can employ, especially when young and first learning. While in Maine studying dragons, Conceil, my apprentice, was fascinated by this simple tool and asked me to show him a few of the basic ways of using it. Here are a few of the demonstrations I made in my sketchbook to show Conceil how to use a pencil, as well as a few of Conceil s experiments. When you finish with the tutorial, look at the final digital render ing of the painting to see if you can spot these techniques being employed. Hatch marks are a common drawing device used in many mediums. Remember to contour your marks to enhance the form _ of an object. Here is straight hatching as opposed to directional hatching. pencil in a very particular way to avoid smearing lead across the page. As you can see in this illustration of Conceil's hand, this ho»d is very limited in its movement. The hand and fingers move very little and the tip of the pencil is tightly controlled, while the back of the pencil does most of the moving. This is excel lent for making short, scratchy hatch marks, especially when working with a pen. % i Hold B In contrast, if you move your handhold to a longer drawing form, the tip of the pencil can sweep in long arcs, pivoting on the wrist or even the arm. Also, the weight of the whole hand Is not pressing down on the tip: rather, the weight is on the heel of your hand with onty the weight of the pencil itself pressing down on the paper. The effect is much more expressive and creates more delicate marks, with far fewer broken pencil tips. Experimenting With Lines Working with line is a drawing tradition that goes back to the great masters. Dürer, da Vinci. Michelangelo and Rembrandt all used lines to sketch their ideas on paper. Here are a few of the marks I use when drawing. Experiment and find line marks of your own. Gradation This simple gradation exercise is a perfect warmup to learning control of the medium. Try to see how lightly you can hold the pencil, and then try to make the penciling as dark as possible. I
5 Establish the Underpainting Create a new layer in 50% opacity Normal mode. Rough in the color palette, giving each object a generalized local color, then work on the interrelation of the orange sunlight filtering through the translucent green wing. 4 Set Base Color Transform your sketch from the grayscale to RGB mode file in Photoshop and shift the tone to a shade of green, the dominant color of the composition.
6 Lay In Shadows Lay down a 50% opacity Multiply mode layer and establish shadows to help unify the dark forms. Refine the Background Begin refining the background elements. To keep these forms in the background, use low chroma and contrast and generalize the details. This helps establish the atmospheric perspective. I used opaque paint to bring the tail forward and separate it from the ispck. Mo form in this stage should have a darker value than anything in the foreground. 26
8 Add the Foreground Details and Finishing Touches Render the details on the dragon. At this stage colors become more saturated, brushes become more opaque, the contrasts increase and the brushes get smaller. Note that as the yellow light passes through the green wing, a saturated yellow-green is formed. Your patience will be rewarded. Keep painting with more detail until you are satisfied with the results.
Dracorexus reykjavikus SPECIFICATIONS Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/ D. reykj aviku s Size: 50' to 75' (15m to 23m) Wingspan: 85 (26m) Weight: 20.000 lbs. (9000kg) Recognition: Markings range from pure white to mottled brown, depending on the season: broad horizontal cranial horns: delta wings: pronounced upward beak: females duller and more mottled in color Habitat: North Atlantic coastal regions Also known as: White dragon, polar dragon

Icelandic Expedition Conceil and I arrived in Reykjavik, Iceland, to continue our adventure drawing the Great Dragons of the world and study the great Icelandic w'hite dragon. We were met by our Icelandic dragon guide Sigurd Nitlheim who is both a professor at the Icelandic Museum of Natural History in Reykjavik, as well as the senior director of the Sniefellsnes Dragon Sanctuary. We could not have asked for a better guide. Director Nitlheim has supplied us with invaluable information about the Icelandic dragon that will be most helpful during our adventures here in Iceland. We will spend several days at the museum in Reykjavik studying the biology of the Icelandic dragon, then travel to the dragon sanctuary to observe the dragons in the wild. Our Tour Guide, Sigurd Niflheim »vn'jumKiOU'is !»1l» Dragon's Breath In the summer native Icelandic wildfiowers carpet the mountainsides with clouds of white blossoms. 30
0«ä ¿fetykiti Olafsvik ICELAND Reykjavik
Biology Ranging as far north as Greenland, as far west as Prince Edward Island, Canada, and as far southeast as the Orkney Islands in Scotland, the Icelandic white dragon has been known to come into contact with the Acadian, Welsh and Scandinavian dragons. The most famous encounter, of course, being with the Welsh dragon of Britain accounted in the Mabinogion. The range of all four dragons overlaps in the Faroe Islands in the North Sea. Icelandic White Dragon in Profile, 75' (23m) Icelandic White Dragon Summer Overhead. Wingspan 85’ (26m) Icelandic White Dragon Winter Overhead Color and Marking Variations • I've noticed a great range of markings of individuals amongst the dragons of Ice-; ‘land. The wing markings of each specimen make them easily identifiable. Our guide. f., Sigurd Niflheim, informs us that of all the other Great Dragon species, the Icelandic white dragon's color and markings vary the greatest throughout the seasons. • Although there is a color variation between male and female, as in all dragons, jvf the white dragon will actually alter color from spring to winter, not unlike the arctic fox. The common eruption of Icelandic volcanoes dramatically alters the dragon s nj. ¿bmoutlage. Niflheim also claims that dragons he has tracked for years have been ¡V known to change in a single season after an eruption. 32

O300000P0OP&90C0CCOQ9Q0OS0P0PQP3000000COSO3O5CCOPa3O3O9SGOCCCOPP000Qg»SO0000CCO0CO0P900CO0CCg0C0O0P9CO0S»a9CipgS'aS Behavior Unlike most other Great Dragons of the world, the Icelandic white dragon is so prolific that competition for premium nesting grounds is fierce. Males often spar in the spring using their horns as weapons to duel with rival males for a coveted nesting spot. The combat can become fierce and the scars from combat are evidenced on many of the older bulls. Once a proper nesting spot or lair has been established, the Icelandic white dragon builds a nest and tries to attract a female with his prominent displays of fire, colorful neck wattle and sonorous dragon song that is so distinctive to the Icelandic white dragon. Depending upon its size, the white dragon commonly hunts the fish and cetaceans surrounding its habitat. When the dragons are young, North Atlantic tuna is a common fish food. When grown to maturity the Icelandic white dragon is able to hunt large sea mammals such as killer whales and juvenile humpback, fin and right whales. Many people have the misconception that the Icelandic dragon can breathe ice. Although they can breathe lire like all Great Dragons, the Icelandic white dragon's endothermic respiration plumes into roils of frost in the cold, leading to the error. Icelandic Habitat Iceland is a landscape of tumultuous beauty with snowcapped mountains and active volcanoes. To exist in this environment the Icelandic white dragon must be a master of survival. 34
 «#№№№№? Mating Habits The male Icelandic white dragon has a largo wattle under its chin that turns red during the mating season. As part of its display, he is able to Inflate the wattle; combined with its loud calls, fire beacons and wing displays, wtiat a dramatic sight! Soaring The Icelandic white dragon is so prolific that within the sanctuary many of them soar over head on tl>e strong North Atlantic winds. Sleeping Pose Great Dragons spend much of their lives at rest; like other large predators, they try to conserve their energy. This large male sat for hours preening with his wings spread out in the sun to warm himself. Icelandic Nests Icelandic white dragons make their nests in the glaciers and ice-covered fields of Iceland and the northern Atlantic. Our guide. Sigurd Niflheim, tells us that Icelandic white dragons are able to use their fire breath to carve caves out of the glaciers in the mountains. The brutal arctic winds of Iceland force dragons. to take shelter in the rocky crevasses of their lairs during the long winter months.
Viking Masthead, Circa 500 a.d. The Icelandic white dragon must have harassed early Viking explorers of Iceland. The Olafsvik Dragon Museum has a wonderful collection of early Icelandic objects Including this early masthead. Courtesy of the Clafsvik Dragon Museum. Ice Horn The early Nordic settlers of Iceland had a deep respect for the Great Dragons that lived on the shores. Director Nifihcim demonstrates a Viking dragon horn made from the cranial horn of the Icelandic white dragon. White Dragon Sighting At night we watch the white dragons along the Icelandic shore bellowing their dragon songs putting up dramatic fire displays. A won-to behold. White dragons are active in the for display and hunting. Whales and most active during these hours. Icelandic white dragon is one of the most famous and tfic dragons in history. At the height of its growth the ;e of the Icelandic w'hite dragon must have exceeded own food supply. By the early medieval period, there were reports of the Icelandic white dragon coming within he range of the blue and the red dragons of Europe. The most famous account is in the medieval Welsh epic the Mabinogion. In the story, a white dragon attacks a red dragon in Britain. In the end both dragons are subdued by King Lludd. It is remarkable that Icelandic white dragons may have ranged as far east and south as Wales over 500 years ago, indicating just how prolific they must have been. Over the subsequent centuries of Iceland’s colonization, the dragon numbers have diminished, but they are still the largest of the Great Dragon species.
Confrontations With Narwhals ThrouglKnjt history, the most famous of all the Icelandic white dragon's prey has been the enigmatic narwhal. Living within the extreme northern range of the Icelandic white dragon, the nar whal is one of the few animals in the world that has evolved a natural defense against dragons. For centuries the long horn of the narwhal male—which is. in fact, a tooth—was believed by Europeans to be a unicorn horn and by Inuit tnbes to hold magical properties. In the 20th century, this horn still confounded scientists, some believing it Is used as an ice pick, a hunting tool or a rutting weapon among males. Recently, however, it has been documented that the nar whal is able to use its horn defensively against a dragon aerial attack. Traveling in pods of up to 100 individuals, narwhals gather in a tight herd around the calves and females at the sight of a dragon. The adult males then form a phalanx of tusks jutting up out of the water, fending off any attacks from above. Many Icelandic white dragons bear the scars of attacking a well defended narwhal pod. SvuzfeKMiet Drcujm SMictiuwy While camping within Sna?fell-snes Dragon Sanctuary, Director Niflheim supplied Conceil and me with many evenings of fascinating stories related to the Icelandic white dragon. None were more wonderful than that of Professor Von Hardwigg. In 1864 it was reported that the professor discovered an entrance to a cave right on the mountainside of Snasfellsnes itself that would lead him deep into the depths of the earth. His adventures included many amazing and incredible stories of giant lizards and spectacular otherworldly environments. Snaefellsnes Draqon Sanctuary 37
■kt DEMONSTRATION ICELANDIC WHITE DRAGON When planning a painting of the Icelandic white dragon, itemize the qualities of the dragon that have been learned through the previous studies: • White markings • Arctic environment • Large delta wing design • Broad skull horns and dramatic upward beak Tints: White Colors ! Hues of white are also known as tints. Starting with gray in the center, many tints of white can be developed such as purples, pinks, green/yellows and pale 1 Create a Thumbnail Sketch Working with pencil and paper, rough in the dragon, establishing a basic, balanced design that will capture the grandeur of the Icelandic white dragon. The broad delta wings specific to the species are important to the design, so make them prominent. blues, as well as dark cool shadow shades. All of the colors in this palette are in the final white dragon painting. Look closely at the final painting and try to find them. Its quickly apparent that white is not really white.
2 Complete the Preliminary Computer Sketch Working with your computer, create a sketch in a Photoshop grayscale document. Refer to your thumbnail design to begin the painting. This preliminary sketch phase is for general placement of the main figure to see how it is balanced in the format. Note the use of a simplistic silhouette and skeletal design at these crucial stages. As with any medium, now is the phase to scale and position your image on the page. 39
TUTORIAL: WH ITE-ON-WHITE When working in my studio on the painting of the Icelandic white dragon, 1 was reminded of a day in Iceland. Conceit Niflheim and I were socked in on the slopes of Mt. Snaefellsjokull during a terrible snowstorm. Spending our time sketching in the shelter as the snow blew outside, Conceil presented me with a blank piece of paper. “What is this?” 1 asked. “It’s a white dragon in a snowstorm,” he said. The three of us laughed harder than we had the whole trip. But it got me thinking and working with Conceil on this problem ... what is the color of white? One of the first lessons of painting is that black, white and gray are values, not colors. Learning to perceive objects not only for their value but for their color is a skill that takes time and study. Learning to sec the color in what appears to be white takes practice. The optical reason we “see" white is that a white object reflects the most amount of light off itself and into our eye compared with the objects around it. The lightest object in value in a composition generally reads as white. For its hue, it also reflects the most amount of the color of the light source. For example, a white T-shirt in the sunlight is bright yellow, in the moonlight it's deep blue and in firelight it turns rich orange. To discover the color of white, first determine the color and quality of the light shining on it. I his color shift happens with all objects, but its most evident in white, so it is usually the first lesson. Try a white-on-white study yourself. Anything you can find around the house will do: a bowl, a white T-shirt or an egg. Set it up with a variety of lighting and try painting its color. Study A Here a warm yellow light falls across the dragon, creating purple shadows. The background Is made a deep neutral purple to help contrast the value and color of the dragon's shape. This Is my personal favorite. Here a soft coot light creates warm shadows and a brown-red background to contrast the bnght blue. While interesting, blue is not usually a natural light color, so it makes the dragon look unnatural. Study C Finally, a nighttime experiment with the dragon lit by moonlight. Atmospheric, but i monochromatic for my needs.
3Add Shading and Value Variation Gradually develop the anatomy and design of the dragon on top of your preliminary sketch. Use shading and value variation since the white-on-white palette will be fairly limited in hue. The values of the shapes and their contrasts against their adjacent shapes developed very early on. Note the forced perspective from the tail to the nose, using countershading to delineate the forms from the front to the back. A darker background is necessary for the bright wings to contrast against, but the tail Is flipped up and made darker to silhouette against the white background. The result is an undulating effect rolling into the background and enhancing the depth of field. See also how, when against the background, the wings are light, but when the tips break out beyond the cloud vignette. they become darker. 4 Refine the Details At this point, change the image size to 14" x 22" (36cm x 56cm) 300dpi grayscale so you can work on the details. It's here that the reference from all the studies done in Iceland become useful and l can begin fleshing out the dragon. Remember that reality is demonstrated in the details. Bumps and scratches from other dragons scar this specimen's horns and face. Markings seem irregular and organic: the creases of skin and scales fold around the anatomy.
cr 5 Establish Color Change your digital file mode to RGB and shift the color balance to any color you want to enhance your underpainting. 6 Continue Developing Color Work in semitransparent layers over your underpainting—also known as ébauche. This is the same whether working traditionally or digitally. Block in the basic colors of the objects to help unify the image. This is done with very loose brushwork and is a good time to bring texture into the image, whether in splattered paints, rough brush marks, or a digital picture file of texture overlaid or multiplied on top. 42
7 Render the Final Details At this point all forms of color and value relationships are established, as well as all of the compositional design elements. It is now time to render all of the details of the final painting. The palette uses rich colors, opaque paint and the finest detail brushes. Whatever medium you are using, these final small applications help to bring your dragon to life. Introduce complementary colors at the focal point to draw the viewer's eye into this area. Bright yellow and orange create a color contrast against the background's dark shades of green and purple.
 Scandinavian Dragon S Dracorexus songenjjordus 44
Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/D.songenfjordus Size: 50' to 100' (15m to 30m) Wingspan: 75' to 85* (23m to 26m) Weight: 20.000 lbs. (9080kg) Recognition: Bright blue markings on males (subtler on females); elongated snout; paddle rudder on tail; canard wing behind hip Habitat: Northern European coastal regions Also known as: Nordic dragon, blue dragon, Norwegian dragon, fjord wyrm
Scandinavian Expedition From Iceland we moved eastward on our World Dragon Expedition to Scandinavia. Conceil and I arrived safely in the city of Bergen, Norway, on our next leg of the adventure to study the great Scandinavian blue dragon. The city of Bergen is the cultural capital of Norway, containing many of the country’s finest institutions, academies and museums, including the Bergen Academy of Natural Sciences, home to the Norwegian Dragon Institute, one of the finest departments of scientific study in the world on the subject of dragons. In Bergen, Conceil and I met our host for the Norway Expedition, Dr. Bryn-hilde Freyason. She is one of Norway’s foremost experts on the Scandinavian blue dragon and agreed to allow us to accompany her for two weeks aboard the research vessel Beowulf\ while she and her team conducted an annual census of the Great Dragons living in Norway. Accommodations on the vessel were sparse, but it was a chance of a lifetime to get to study these dragons alongside some of the worlds top specialists. The Voyage KNM BEOWULF Trondheim lergen The Voyage of the KNM Beowulf Our Tour Guide. Dr. Brynhilde Freyason The crew affectionately calls her “The Dragon Lady." 46
Tagging Dragons for Research Following a dragon's movement throughout a year is important to Dr. Freyason s research. It Indicates where the most common feeding grounds are. aids in an accurate census and helps support the theory that males do the majority of the hunting while females tend to eggs and hatchlings, proving that dragons are far more social than believed. Conceil accompanied Dr. Freyason on her tagging expeditions off the Beowulf almost every day. He was very enthusiastic. Tagging Darts The darts that Dr. Freyason designed are fired from a high-powered rifle and attach to the dragon's hide. This allows the team to track the specimen's movements for up to a year using satellite tracking technology. ceocccccccceeceeeMcccec':
cetaceans, makes The Scandinavian blue dragon is a broad-ranging species down to make lairs as far south as Scotland, east into Russia, and even as far west as the Faroe Islands (thus bringing ; blue dragon into occasional contact with white and dragons). The plentiful populations of seals, porpoises whales in these areas provide ample food, allowing blue dragons to thrive along the sparsely inhabited, rugged coasts of Scandinavia. The Scandinavian blue dragon nests and lives along the rocky coasts of the Scandinavian peninsula, which includes Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The adequate ainfall, mild temperatures, high rugged cliffs overlook -the Norwegian Sea, ijords brimming with whales and and sparse human populations make this region the healthiest dragon habitat in the world. Although the Scandinavian blue dragons range is not as large as the white’s, there are more Great Dragons living along the fjords of Norway than anywhere else in the world. The stunning habitat of the Scandinavian blue dragon Norway one of the most popular dragon destinations in the world. One popular way to tour the visual splendor of Norway is the Dragon-Fjord Cruiseline, one of the most successful businesses in the country. To protect its habitat for the future from both hunting and the impact of environmental tourism, the Norwegian government has dedicated several nature preserves along the southeastern coasts and fjords as dragon preserves. Scandinavian Blue Dragon in Profile. 75' (23m) 48
 Color Variations The famous blue dragon of Norway Is not always blue. The Scandinavian dragon possesses the widest range of coloring among individuals and regions, even changing throughout the seasons. Patterns and colors on these males make identification easier for scientists. Scandinavian Blue Dragon Egg. 18" (46cm) The eggs of the Scandinavian dragon are camouflaged to blend in with the blue granite of the fjords. Scandinavian Blue Dragon Male Overhead. Wingspan 85' (26m) The male Scandinavian blue dragon has bright blue markings to allow it to both blend Into its surroundings and attract a female. Scandinavian Blue Dragon Female Overhead, Wingspan 85' (26m) Female Scandinavian dragons have more muted and mottled coloring. Rendering Anatomical Details i had the chance to sketch this dragon and many others while working with Dr. Freyason. The elegant swanlike neck of the blue dragon gives it great dexterity to hunt for fish in the fjords of Norway. Young dragons often dig for shellfish in the shallows. U
aydssfesfigfi Behavior herring. The extinction of the European wyvern in the late 19th century, combined with whale hunting controls in the late 20th century, has helped to \m, l dramatically increase the number of Scandinavian blue dragons. ki. As such, they have the highest conserva- i tion rating of i I / any Great A Dragon. I During our fortnight expedition aboard the Beowulf with Dr. Freyason and her crew, we were able to observe the behavior of the Scandinavian blue dragon in great detail. Similar to other species of Great Dragons, the blue requires a wide hunting range, isolated windswept peaks and plentiful waters to provide enough food to sustain the larger specimens of the species. A mature male Scandinavian dragon can weigh more than 10 tons (9089kg), its wingspan can reach up to 100 feet (30m) and it can consume nearly 150 lbs. (68kg) of meat per day. 'The Scandinavian, like all Great Dragons, has long periods of metabolic stasis and hibernation, requiring the hunting of food only about once a week in the summer and once a month in the winter. Older individuals may eat only once a month in summer, and sleep through the whole winter. Plentiful supplies of cetaceans in the waters off the Norwegian coast allow the dragons to hunt infrequently, catching large marine mammals that they will take back to their lairs to feed on. The Scandinavian blue dragon hunts large food fish such as North Atlantic tuna and smaller cetaceans such as pilot and killer whales, so they do not interfere with the fishing trade, which mostly nets smaller food fish like Blue Wildflowers The wildflowers that grow in the rocky northern soils of Scandinavia, along with lichen and mosses, add to the blue coloration of the landscape and help the blue dragon blend in with its environment. Scandinavian Habitat The fjords of Norway are among the most beautiful environments on the earth. Seeing the yibrant cobalt and azure blues of the cliffs, it is obvious how the Scandinavian blue dragon evolved its unique coloration.
Hunting Soaring high over the North Atlantic coast of Norway, the Scandinavian blue dragon can glide for hours searching the ocean for pods of whales and schools of fish. Fishing The long thin snout on the Scandinavian blue dragon allows it to agilely hunt fish at the water s edge. Although all great dragons are capable of this activity, only the Scandinavian has adapted tc the technique, possessing no nasal or chin horns that would impede its effectiveness.
¡wnat#.w-tew+++* * * *+++*+*++*++++* 0t randinavian blue dragon has not posed much of it to humans despite living in close proximity for •ies. The dragon has been regarded by Scandinavian es as a creature of great magic and power and was ularly revered by early Nordic and Viking cultures, the very impressive Hall of Dragons, a collection artifacts at the Bergen Academy of Natural Sciences. The Scandinavian people have revered and studied ; dragon for centuries. Blue Dragon Skull, Circa 1800 Dragon skulls have long been prized in Scandinavia and collected for their beauty and as trophies. Courtesy of the Bergen Academy of Natural Sciences. Flnial Detail Medieval Christian craftsmen placed great importance on tire imagery of dragons just as their Viking predecessors did. as evidenced by this eave finial on a church stave. As in many cultures, the dragon is revered In Scandinavia for its power and beauty. 52

DEMONSTRATION Scandinavian blue Dragon In my studio I am able to begin working on my final painting of the Scandinavian blue dragon. Referencing my journal notes and sketches, I try to develop a painting that will exhibit this beautiful animal to its best. It is helpful to itemize the features that you want to include in your painting: • Distinctive silhouette and head shapi • Vibrant Cobalt Blue markings • Dramatic fiords seascape 1 Create a Thumbnail Sketch Create a rough thumbnail of the design you Intend to paint. Choose a format and aspect ratio you think v/ill best showcase your composition, highlighting the unique features of the Scandinavian blue dragon.
J7] 2 Complete the Preliminary Computer Sketch Once you have settled on a basic design, begin your computer sketch using a stylus and tablet. Use simple chisel and round brushes while sketching to replicate the aesthetic of pencil drawing and broad paintbrush washes. At this point work in grayscale at a dpi of about 150. This allows you to push the sketch around and make dramatic alterations to the design without needing too much processing time. This is not a problem anymore with most computers, but large images at high resolution and multiple layers can get up into the hundreds of megabytes, and can take a few seconds to make complicated effects happen. Waiting for the computer to catch up is as frustrating as waiting for paint to dry.
TUTORIAL: COMPOSITION Composition is the fundamental arrangement of elements that make up a work of art. The goal in painting, as in music, dance or any other art form, is to create a composition that is balanced. Too much of one thing or another can throw off the arrangement and make the work inharmonious or discordant. You want the viewers eye to move smoothly around the picture, finally arriving at your focal point. As an artist, you can use various tools to direct the viewer’s eye. 11ère I’ve used the painting of the Scandinavian blue dragon to illustrate a few methods you can utilize when constructing a composition. Feel free to use any technique (or a combination of many) in your work. The Golden Section The ancient mathematical equation and diagram of the Golden Section (approximately 1:1.61 is an excellent tool for composing Ancients believed it was a sacred equation that governed the universe. Finding the Fulcrum The fulcrum is the point on which your design hinges (marked here with an F). Just like a scale, a composition should not tip too much in one direction or another. Patterns Instead of drawing the eye inward to focus on one point, the use of a repeating pattern helps unify a painting and allows the eye to move smoothly across multiple pomts. Orbits •Using elliptical concentric forms around the focal point—like orbits around the sun—helps draw the eye inward to the center. Directional Lines Sometimes called "pinwheeling" or 'windmilling.* this technique is lb- C<i:-: ost ul .ill: ji.sl point or arrow v.hiy« you wont pec-ole to lor
3Add the First Layer of Details Once you're satisfied with the design of the painting, double the dpi to 300, allowing you to work In close and render all the little tiddly bits and fjords that are so much fun. Detailing the wings and scales helps make the animal much more believable.
5 Add a New Layer of Color Apply a new layer of semiopaque paint (ébauche) over the underpainting, applying a local color and some added texture to the forms in the image. Blocking in a color, ébauche is done with broad simple brushes in a 50% opacity normal mode. 6 Add Texture and Deepen the Color Using an image of impasto paint texture, copy and paste the image into a new layer over your painting and change its opacity and mode to 25% Multiply. Color balance the layer to a blue hue. jjd,. erasing away the information you don't need and leaving just a $ ; hint of painted texture in the rocks. This information will be almost Mf] completely obliterated by subsequent work, but it s there, and it {¿•I helps add depth. Starting from the extreme foreground and working backward, render the background. Using opaque paint, the color and contrasts increase as objects move forward into focus. Although you working over much of the texture and information beneath, it is still there and helps as a guide informing the shapes and colors rendered.
***** 7 Add the Details Deepen the colors and render the details of the dragon’s face and body. Don't forget that little dot of white to make his eye look wet. How do you paint a dragon? One brushstroke at a time. There are no shortcuts or filters or tricks you can use to get the effect you need. Whether painting In oil, acrylic or digital, the technique Is the same. Hours of rendering. Little brushes with opaque paint and more saturated colors will bring the final touches to this beautiful Scandinavian blue dragon.
 TT WELSH DRAGON Dracorexus idraigoxus SPECIFICS IO\S Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/ Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/D. idraigoxus Size: 75’ (23m) Wingspan: 100- (30m) Weight: 30,000 lbs (13620kg) Recognition: Bright red markings on males (subtler on females); nasal and chin horn on males; paddle rudder on tail: canard wings behind hip Habitat: Northern British coastal regions Also known as: Draig, red dragon, red wyrm 60

LSH EXPEDITION lilL Range of the Welsh Dragon \ map shows the known dragon lairs in northern Wales. o' WALES \ : departing Trondheim, Norway, Conceil and I set off to Northern Wales. Landing in Cardiff, we transported our ves by way of the British rail system through the beaut i fill landscape of Snowdonia and arrived in Caernarfon. There we met our guide for this expedition, Sir Geoffrey Guest, Royal Dragon Ghillie and Head Gamekeeper with icTrenadog Royal Dragon Trust. Sir Geoffreys family has been gamekeepers and stalkers in the royal forests and preserves of Wales for hundreds of years. He escorted Conceil and me deep into the Trenadog Dragon Trust where we hoped to observe the powerful Welsh red dragon in its natural habitat. We made our base camp in the charming old mining village of Trefor, along Caernarfon Bay. From there we were able to hike up into Yr Bill (the Rivals) to get a closer look at the dragons. ' W’: <=4=4 10. 12. 10 1300 \ MAESAWYRCAEROYDO "V F1233
OR Welsh Cane This cane was presented to Sir Geoffreys greatgrandfather in 1899 by Edward, Prince of Wales, future King Edward VII of England. This prized family heirloom has passed from father to son for three generations. The head of the cane is a claw from a dragon hunted by the prince and Geoffrey's great-grandfather when he held the title of Royal Dragon Ghillie. The Trefor Map This old 19th-century map is still used by Sir Geoffrey. It clearly shows the old granite mine outside the town on the slopes of the mountain. Today the mine is closed and the ruins are home to a Welsh red dragon and its brood. Ecotourists come to see this magnificent creature and the town that lives in its shadow. Courtesy of the Caernarfon Draconic Society. Caernarfon. 63
Sir Geoffrey explained to us during our expedition a great ral about the biology of the Welsh red dragon. While it is ic that the Welsh red is the rarest of the western dragons, its protected status for hundreds of years under the protec -of the royal crown has allowed the animal to survive. Like other Great Dragons, the female red mates only every few years and her gestation period is extensive, sometimes lasting up to 36 months. A clutch usually only-consists of three eggs, which arc fiercely guarded by both mother and father. When the hatchlings are born, they no more than the size of a puppy, requiring great attention for several years until they can fend for themselves. During this time period the male usually does all the of fish and whales, bringing the kill back to the lair where the female protects her young. Once the hatchlings have learned to fly, the males leave the lair and begin looking for a new territory. Due to disease, perdition or accident only approximately 20 percent of Welsh red dragon hatchlings survive to adulthood, which means that one Welsh red dragon couple may produce only a single adult dragon on average once every twenty years. Through conservation and preservation these numbers are improving, but the Welsh red dragon remains squarely on the endangered species list. Welsh Red Dragon Egg. 17" (43cm) 64
^ i L £ j i . L\i P* Color Variations Like other dragons, the Welsh red dragon has a wide variation of patterns and colors between male and female. The frills and horns of the male are absent in the female, as are the bright markings that become deeper in the fall. Welsh Red Dragon Juvenile Young Great Dragons grow extremely quickly, consuming their own body weight in meat every day. Young Welsh red dragons begin life with a mottled camouflage that molts and turns into the distinctive red with age.
"dragon on the moor" The great Welsh red dragon ot folklore and history is by tar the most famous within the Dracorexidae family of drag-. Although the red dragons do not have as large a range the white and blue dragons and are far rarer (estimated than 200 remaining), they hold the distinctions of ring in such close connection to the humans in their area that the relationship is almost symbiotic. Dragon-human contact, however, is almost unheard of. “They’re like your lerican grizzlies,” Sir Geoffrey explains. “If you leave alone, they don’t bother you. But if you taunt them or their hatchlings, you’re in big trouble.” The current range of the Welsh red dragon stretches north to the Faroe Islands, south into Wales, and across much of the northern islands of Scotland, where the dragons hunt seals and small whales from the sea. Ddraig acha r Chlun KEEP YOUR DOG ON A LEAD DO NOT FEED THE DRAGONS DO NOT APPROACH THEM Warning Signs Signs like this one are all and along Llyn Peninsula
Dragon Songs Welsh red dragons bellow deep sonorous songs that can be heard over tong miles. This helps them to navigate among other dragons even when visibility is low. Wings as Protection The large sail-like wings of dragons are filled with blood vessels. Lying in the warm sun, even on a cold day. can warm large dragons. Similarly, on a hot day the wind blowing across their wings cools them off. very much like the ears on an elephant. Camouflaged by Color In the fall, the hillsides of wales and northern Britain become ablaze with autumn foliage. During this season the Welsh red dragon can blend in extremely well to its surroundings. Hunting for Food Here a Welsh red dragon swoops down out of the sun to strike at a pod of Risso's dolphins. >«5000«
It Perhaps nowhere else in the world is the land so intertwined with its dragons as in Wales. Wales is synonymous with dragons, and the Welsh red dragon is emblazoned on their Hag and woven into their national mythology, i' The dragons had very little contact with humans until the ['English settlement of Wales in the Medieval period. By the 12th century, King Edward 1 opened Wales up as a frontier For centuries the royalty of Britain regularly hunted dragons in royal game forests like Trenadog Royal Dragon Trust, maintained by the famous Welsh dragon ghillies. I he last red dragon hunt to take place was in 1907. Today the dragon ghillies act as guides for naturalists and visitors. Although it is illegal to hunt the red dragon, a dragon ghillie may use force if a dragon threatens humans or their land of England. He hired French military architect Master homes. Luckily that has never been needed during Sir Jacques de Saint-Georges to build heavily fortified strong- Geoffrey's tenure, holds throughout this new territory. There was no doubt that the intrusion of so many English would upset the local Welsh tribes as well as the dragons who lived there. The Llyn Peninsula was all but cut off from the rest of Wales by a ring of stone castles. Red dragons have been historically well protected in Wales. Technically all red dragons are protected as the personal stock of the royal family dating back to the reign of King Edward I. This aristocratic land management and strict protection allowed the Welsh dragon to survive well into the 21st century while other dragon species like the European wyvern and the lindworm were hunted to extinction. Tl Welsh Landscape The red autumn landscape helps aid the Welsh dragon’s camouflage. Photo courtesy of Conceil Delacroix. Observation Post - i ', 'Small stone stalker cottages like this one dot the Welsh k \'' coastline and serve to house •,y< ghillies and hunters as they 'MJj travel inside the Royal Trust. Conceil and I camped at { Several along our tour wii j Geoffrey ; if; 68
WeUk Rzd Siyktmys Here are a few of the sketches of the Welsh red dragon from our treks through the Trcnadog Royal Dragon Trust. 69
Welsh Red Dragon Working in my studio, I used sketchbooks of studies from our trip to Wales to develop a painting of the Welsh red dragon. My first memory was of its bright fire displays. I knew that this painting would need to be dominated by the dramatic fire light. Here is a list of aspects of the dragon that 1 want to include in this painting: • Elegant dragon figure • Bright red markings • Dramatic fire display • Dark Welsh landscape 1 Create an Initial Sketch Plan your painting with one or more rough preliminary thumbnail sketches. At the earliest stages of the sketch I begin the con-position with the large fireball as a major compositional element.
2 Establish the Underpainting Refine the drawing in grayscale to render the dragon's form. In this early stage. I include a large fireball as a major compositional element. Establish the form and value of the lighting and light effects. 71
r Intensify the Light Source Surrounding your light source with a field of darker, more muted colors makes it appear even brighter. In this example you can see why dragons use fire to communicate over great distances. At night, these beacons can be seen for miles, turning a simple sketch into a cramauc scene. . TUTORIAL: DRAGON FIRE? LIGHTING EFFECTS AND LIGHT SOURCES A lighting effect is the source that emits the light reflecting offyour objects. This is only an issue if the light source itself is in a picture. If the source is off frame, then we see only the reflection of the light source affecting the object. But if the light source is in the picture—such as dragon fire—then it has to be taken into account. Apply these two basic principles when dealing with light sources that are in frame: • The light source should always be the lightest thing in the painting. The highlights made by a light source can’t be brighter than the light source itself. • The light source should radiate light and cast shadows that affect nearby objects. You can spend a lifetime studying the nuances of light: colored light, diffused light, ambient light, dappled light, reflected light and so on. However, for the purpose of this exercise, these two cornerstones are enough to get you started. Apply these rules to anything in your painting—a sword, a stone, a tattoo, a ball of flame, a hamster, anything—and it will glow as a light source. Isn’t that a neat trick? From Sketch to Painting Here ypu see how adding the principles of lighting effects to a simple sketch can help bring your work to life. The flame becomes the light source in the image and creates stark lighting, deep contrasts and saturated colors. Lighting effects glow with a gradient of colors between the color of the light and the color of its surroundings. In this case, the colors go from bright yellow to its opposite, dark purple. The glow transitions in a gradient from yellow to orange to red to fuchsia and into purple. 72
4 Establish the Colors Apply 50% opaque Normal mode layer over the painting to establish the local colors of the elements. Choosing complemen tary colors for this image is quite obvious-. A red dragon and a bright yellow fireball dictate a dark purple and green background. This creates both color and value contrasts in the composition. 3Set the Base Color Change the file’s mode to RGB and use the color balance adjustment toggle to slide the painting into the purple hues. 73
TUTORIAL: PRACTICE LIGHTING WITH SCULPTURE Practice and study sculpture to better understand the behavior of light and shadow on objects. When you are stumped on how a certain object should look under particular lighting, work from a model. I have a collection of toy monsters and dinosaurs that come in handy for this. Straight Forward Sldo Lighting The light creates shapes of value that contrast against one another, creating the illusion of a three-dimensional form. Lighting From Below Dramatic lighting from below creates a stark contrast of black and white forms. In Eastern art theory, this is referred to as Notan. Reflected Light. Single Light Source This Image shows a single light source from the side, but much of the information Is lost in the shadows. Reflected Light. Double Light Source Add a simple secondary light source to illuminate the shadow side of the form. This helps give much greater dimension to your subject. 5 Complete the Background Working back to front, lay down opaque paint to complete the background': range of purple tones. The background should act as a frame for the composition. enhancing the subject without being distracting. Adding tonal texture is helpful as well. ■■I SB* 74
6 Add the Finishing Touches Rendering the little details is the hardest but most important part of finishing a painting. At times it can be daunting, but the rewards are well worth it. As I often told Conceit along our expedition when he would grumble, the difference between a professional and an amateur is that an amateur quits when it gets difficult. You may have no desire to be a professional artist, but to achieve professional results, in art as in anything in life, there are no shortcuts. Final details such as cheek, horns, bright highlights on the teeth and a sharp reflection in the eye help pop the focal point into even sharper focus.
 LIGURIAN DRAGON Dracorexus cinqaterrus SPECIFICATIONS Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/ Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/D.cinqaterrus Wingspan: 25' (8m) Weight: 2.500 lbs. (1135kg) Recognition: Gray-silver markings on males with bright lavender-violet during mating season: subtler colors on females: ten-digit wings: large crests and frills along neck and tail Habitat: Northern Italian coastal regions Conservation status: Highly endangered Also known as: Dragoni, Dragonara. Dracogrigio. silver dragon, amethyst dragon

Ligurian Expedition cold of northern European climates that Conceil have traveled since we left America, the warm and sunny coast of Italy, known as the Cinque Terre, was a wel come change. After departing northern Wales and spend-everal days in London, our journey took us southward Italy to study the rarest of all the Great Dragons, the Ligurian gray dragon. The northern coast of Italy along the Ligurian Sea is )ften referred to as the Italian Riviera. Since WWII the five cities of the Cinque Terre (“the Five Lands”) in the region of Liguria have become vacation destinations to millions. Fortunately for the inhabitants of the five seaside villages— Monterosso al Mare, Vernazza, Corniglia, Manarola and Riomaggiore—as well as tor the Ligurian gray dragon, the world had not intruded on them since the Middle Ages. Roads still do not allow access into the towns themselves, but the railroad arrived in the 1950s, bringing with it a torrent of tourists to gape at the scenery and toss fish to the dragons, doing more damage than all the pirates the dragons had evaded for a millennium. The National Park of Cinque Terre is now protected as a world environmental and cultural heritage site. Conceil and I arrived at the beautiful seaport town of Genoa but had no time to linger when the rarest and arguably the most beautiful dragon of the world awaited. Our guide, Bevenuto Modigliani, is head of the art department at the Institute of Genoa and is a wonderful inspiration for understanding this beautiful region. It is a refreshing change to spend time with another artist and to see the beautiful environment of the Ligurian gray dragon through the eyes of an artist. 78
 IXQl AND J UE ENVIRON! LIGURIA A'iosso Monte Gagnant TALY Map of the Cinque Terre, Italy Italian and Ligurian Rags Liguria Is a region in northern Italy containing the province of La Spezia. pp 1 If* Wy
Biology ’vf; The Ligurian gray dragon is not only the rarest but also the most biologically different of all of the Great Dragons. It is > also the only dragon species that has more than live supra-metacarpals in its wings. A total of ten metacarpal bones radiate out from the radius and ulna bones. 'Ibis unique fficonstruction makes for very dexterous movements of the [. wings, allowing the dragons great maneuverability in the i> air. Biologists have debated over the past few centuries whether to include the Ligurian gray dragon within the family Dracorexidae, or to devote it to a whole new family. I he Ligurian gray dragon also has the distinction of being the smallest of the Great Dragons with a maximum recorded wingspan of only 25’ (8m), and an average wingspan of about 15’ (5m). It is often mistaken for the amphiptere species that live in the Cinque Terre region. 'I he Ligurian gray dragon is the southernmost species of Great Dragons. Face Frills The male Ligurian gray dragon uses these flamboyant (rills as mating displays. Ligurian Gray Dragon in Profile. 15' (5m)
Ligurian Gray Dragon Male Overhead, Wingspan 25' (8m) The coloring on the male ranges from pale silver to vibrant purple. Ligurian Gray Dragon Female Overhead, Wingspan 25' (8m) The mottled brown tones of the female allow her to camouflage into the rocky cliffs. Ligurian Gray Dragon Egg, 6" (15cm) Environmental changes have made the Ligurian gray dragon very rare. It is believed there may be as few as a dozen mating pairs left in the wild. The eggs of the Ligurian gray dragon are a national treasure handled with the same care as the master artworks of the nation. Ligurian Gray Dragon Wing The ten metacarpals of the Ligurian gray-dragon are twice as many as other Great Dragon species. This structure allows the dragon to fold its wings into intricate and subtle shapes in order to perform highly dexterous aerial maneuvers.
terranean Seas (ACCBAMS), in 1998 the population of porpoises in these waters had dropped 99 percent since 1950 (from 1 million to 10,000). In the late 20th century, drastic measures were taken to protect cetaceans living in the Mediterranean. 'I he Pelagos Marine Sanctuary, formerly the Ligurian Cetacean Preserve designated in 1999, was the largest ACCBAMS marine preserve; it is a joint collaboration between Italy, France and Monaco. This action is believed to have had the greatest effect in saving the Ligurian gray dragon. In 1998, the Italian Ministry for the Environment created a marine sanctuary along the Cinque Terre to preserve this ancient coast in pristine condition. Additionally, the Parco Nationale del Cinque Terre, a UNESCO World Heritage site, and the World Dragon Protection Fund have helped to save the Ligurian gray dragon from extinction, but it is still acutely threatened despite living in one of the most environmentally protected regions in the world. ve cliffside villages that make up the Cinque Terre are >reathtaking in their beauty, and today exist much as they have since the medieval period due to inaccessibility from the outside world. For most of its history, these villages only be approached by boat or by goat path. After WWII, the development of roads and rail opened these territories up to tourists and trade, drastically affecting the Ligurian gray dragons habitat. It was believed that the igurian gray dragon had gone extinct by the end of the 1940s, but the relative isolation of the Cinque Terre saved from that fate. Today they are one of the rarest spe cies of dragon in the world, known to exist only within this tiny seashore of Italy. Currently, the World Dragon Protection Fund estimates that there are fewer than 100 Ligurian gray dragons alive. Hie most dramatic effect on the Ligurian gray dragon has been to its food supply. According to the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black and Medi- Ligurian Habitat 82
Sunbathing Gray Dragon The Mediterranean sun helps the warm themselves. Feeding Frenzy The relatively small teeth of the gray dragon are used to grasp the fish that it feeds upon. ATTENTZIONE! Non Somministrare i Dragoni Do Not Feed The Dragons Ne Pas Nourrir ies Dragons No se Alimentan los Dragones 83
History Based upon documents from earlier studies and depictions in scientific journals from as early as the 17th century, it is believed that the Ligurian gray dragon has shrunk in size almost 30 percent. With the depletion of marine mammals, the gray has needed to change its feeding habits from por poises and seals to tuna and sea bass. The larger specimens very likely starved to death, leaving a smaller breeding population. This small area in northern Italy comprises all that is left of the Ligurian gray dragons habitat, and exists uniquely as a region where dragons and humans live in the closest proximity to one another. The Ligurian people and government take great pride in this fact. Most of the depictions of dragons created during the Italian Renaissance and Baroque periods are of gray dragons. Because of its long history of living in close proximity to humans, the Ligurian gray dragons population lias drastically decreased over the centuries. They were hunted with the same fervor that wiped out the European wyvern. Some draconologists today believe that the Ligurian gray dragon was originally an Asian dragon species that may have been brought to Italy by explorers of eastern trade routes during the early Renaissance. This hypothesis bears some merit since medieval depictions of dragons almost always depict wyverns, while post-Renaissance dragon depictions appear more dragonesque. Ligurian Roundel Rendering ot a 17th-century architectural roundel. Courtesy of the Institute of Genoa. Elegant Frills The Ligurian gray dragon is famous? for its elaborate and beautiful neck frills. Ligurian-Inspired Glider ■This 16th-century hang glider design was inspired by the wings of the dragon as depicted in Leonardo da Vinci's notebooks. 84

 Gray Dragon of the Ligurian dragon is quite different others. Revisiting my sketchbooks and notes, I of the exquisite colors present on the Italian Here is an itemization of the qualities I want to include to best illustrate this dragon: • Elaborate head frills • Elongated and sinuous body shape • Bright Mediterranean light and color tlDtf D&IjOIÍ 't Complete a Thumbnail Sketch 1 In my sketchbook I began my large-scale work by compiling all of the sketches that I did in Liguria and working to compose a design that would best demonstrate the Ligurian gray dragon’s attributes. 86
 555 2 Complete the Preliminary Computer Sketch Whether you are working in a traditional or digital medium, the process of drawing is the same. Beginning the work with large general shapes allows the drawing to come into focus slowly and broadly. The image is in grayscale at this point so as to not be distracted by color. Beginning work with a gray ground allows you to sketch tonally to establish mass and light before you concern yourself with details. Keep in mind the anatomical studies of the dragon and consider how it moves. As you can see from this preliminary drawing stage, the initial focus is to establish the mass and silhouette of the dragon. Just as a sculptor begins with a lump of clay, begin by carving the large shapes and shadows into the painting using broad opaque brushstrokes. 3 Refine the Finished Orawing Still working in grayscale, increase the file size of the image once satisfied with the sketch. Now you can go back into the drawing using all of you reference sketches from earlier and render the detailed anatomy. Deep shadows along with bright white highlights enhance the dragon's form, especially around the face. The landscape is rendered based upon the reference material and sketches made during my expedition to Liguria.

5 Add Color Start painting the first new layer. Set at 50% opacity Normal layer using bright colors on a broad loose allows you to establish local colors individual objects. Keep it loose and fast. Separating this with a new layer allows you to make changes or experiment with colors without affecting the sketch. 4 Set the Base Color Now that your drawing is finished, you can begin to paint color into the dragon. Change the color to RGB mode, then adjust the color balance to purple. The dragon will have bright silvery overtones and cool blue shadows, as well as rich bright scenery in the background. Purple or violet is a wonderful hue that can be pushed into warmer tones by adding reds or cooler tones by adding blue.
6 Lay In Shadows Create a new 50% opacity Multiply mode layer, and lay a loose glaze of shadows. This technique is a holdover from an oil painting technique where you lay In a colored glaze in order to reestablish the forms and light after the initial color underpainting. 7 Refine the Background The color of the Ligurian landscape is bright and saturated due to the sunlight that illuminates the Italian coast, in these stages, work back to front. Use the principles of atmospheric perspective so the color becomes more saturated as the environment advances toward the viewer. 90



Crimean Expedition Departing from the sunny and bright climate of northern Italy, Conceil and 1 began the next leg of our expedition to one of the most mysterious dragon regions of the world— the Ukraine and the Crimean peninsula. Here we studied the least understood of the Great Dragons, the Crimean black dragon. Landing in Simferopol, Crimea, Conceil and I met our guide, Dr. Alexi Kandinsky of the Ukrainian Dracotechnikal Institute, formerly known as the Soviet Dracotechnikal Institute. Dr. Kandinsky was a Soviet draconaut, but is now director of the institute. Access to the Crimean black dragon and the Dracotechnikal Institute and nearby Dracodrome was unheard of before the fall of the Soviet Union, and today there is still lingering trepidation about allowing Westerners in to visit. This trip is the first of its kind, and we are excited to learn as much as possible from Dr. Kandinsky. Our Tour Guide, Dr. Alexi Kandinsky The Ukrainian Dracotechnikal Institute This learning institution in Simferopol was once the world's largest government-funded dragon research center in the world. UKR 01 FP \7. 1 0 14 CiM(|lOpOIIOnb 0156 94
Range of the Crimean Black Dragon CRIMEAN BLACK DRAGON К p иMс ь к i Ч о p н о г о Дракона Historical Range Present Range
Crimean black dragon is fairly small by comparison to some of its Great Dragon cousins, usually being no more than 25' (8m) long with a 50' (15m) wingspan. There are, however, rumors that during the height of the War, Soviet scientists at the Dracotechnikal Institute were bioengineering super-dragons from black dragon stock. Increased intelligence would allow for dragons to fly reconnaissance spy missions over NAT O military installations and record data photographically. In 1965, what was believed to be a black dragon was shot down near the Cigli US. Air Force Base in TVirkey. The Soviet Union denied any involvement with the incident or that they were genetically engineering spy dragons. I tried to broach the subject with Dr. Kandinsky, but he insisted that the Dracotechnikal Institute and the Dracodromc have always been purely scientific in nature and that he has no recollection of any to weaponize dragons by the military. Conceil and I decided that we should drop the subject if we wanted to stay in Dr. Kandinsky’s good graces. Crimean black dragons have survived for millennia off of the plentiful stocks of large Black Sea bass and massive sturgeon in the region’s rivers, lakes and seas. It is believed that some examples of Crimean black dragons must have at one time been able to grow twice as big as a specimen today. Crimean Black Dragon in Profile, 25' (8m) The Crimean black dragon is distinctive for its profile. Because of its airplane-like tail, high dorsal fin, swept wings and pronounced chin horn, some scientists have suggested that early Soviet jet airplane designs were modeled after the Crimean black dragon. 96
 м¡ж£т£ма£к6а Crimean Black Dragon Male Overhead, Wingspan 50’ (15m) Crimean Black Dragon Female Overhead, Wingspan 50' (15m) Crimean Black Dragon Head The distinctive profile of the Crimean black dragon's head varies by individual and more greatly between families. Both the male and female possess the pronounced chin prow, although It is more dominant on the males. It is used as a weapon between competitive rivals, and for hatchlings to break out of their shells.
 Behavior The Crimean black dragon once ted upon the legendary sturgeon that grew to extraordinary sizes, but the diminishing sea life of the region has caused the dragon to diminish in both size and numbers. The Crimean black dragon was at one time a common sight as far west as the Carpathian Mountains in what is now Romania to the Caucasus in modern-day Turkey and Georgia, making their home along the coasts of the Black and Caspian Seas. Today, however, the best place to see the black dragon is in Crimea along the rocky coasts of the Black Sea. The majestic Crimean black dragon has become terribly endangered over the past century due to heavy industrialization and lack of preservation of their habitat during the reign of the Soviet Union. The black dragons in Crimea predominantly lived within the Dracodrome military base in the mountains outside Simferopol. When the Dracodrome was defunded and abandoned in 1991, many of the dragons were destroyed, but some escaped and continue to live within the communities where they had been raised in captivity. Today there are believed to be over two dozen dragons living in the ruins of the former Dracodrome. The area is off limits to outsiders, ostensibly for the safety of the public and the dragon. All attempts by the World Dragon Protection Fund to perform a study of the dragons living at the Dracodrome have been denied by the Ukrainian government. During our multiple trips to the Dracodrome to draw and paint the Crimean black dragon, we were not allowed inside the compound. This tight-knit community of dragons is unique within the Dracorexidae family. Nowhere else in the world are there Great Dragons living in such close proximity to one another. T he highly developed socialization is speculated by some draconologists to be a part of their genetic engineering. The Crimean Habitat
Crimean Lair Before the 20th century. Crimean black dragons made their lairs in the craggy seashores of the Black. Caspian and Azov Seas and fed upon the giant sturgeon that once populated the waterways. Today Crimean black dragons in the wild are extremely rare as their diet of sturgeon and cetaceans has all but vanished. Conceii investigates what we are told is an abandoned dragon lair. Crimean Black Dragon Hatchling Born in clutches of one to six eggs, the Crimean dragonling is about 12" (30cm) long when born. The Crimean black dragon is the only Great Dragon species to have been successfully bred in captivity. Today these dragons are raised on a limited scale at the Ukrainian Dracotech-mkal institute and roleased into the wild.
tl imean peninsula has been one of the most bitterly over pieces of geography in history, from the Greeks Romans to the Ottoman lurks. In 1854, the Crimean War between the Russians and the French ravaged the area, in WWII Crimea was sought after by both the Russians and the Germans. Both conflicts devastated most of Crimea. The Crimean peninsula is heavily defunded along its southern coast, which is rimmed with a tall palisade of cliffs near Yalta; this has been home to the black dragons for millennia. Because of these repeated military conflicts, as well as massive post-war industrialization and the destruction of most of the fish supply in the Black Sea, the Crimean black dragon has been on the critically endangered list since the 1970s. Like the gray dragon, the black dragon has reduced in size in order to survive. In 1941, during the siege of the Soviet Union in the Battle of the Crimea, Stalin became fascinated with the attempts to genetically engineer animals. The best Soviet draconologists were brought together and commanded to create a weaponized breed of dragons that would be able to intercept Nazi warplanes. Like many of Stalins eccentric ideas, the creation of a Soviet super dragon was never achieved, but it did serve as a successful propaganda item. Soviet Spy Dragon Here is an artist's rendenng of a Soviet Cold War-era reconnaissance dragon gear. The dragon pro- that centered at the Dracodrome in Crimea spent years breeding intelligent specimens of dragons to effect spying missions over After the war, the Soviet Dracotechnikal Institute was formed in Simferopol. Later, Cold War reports indicated that the Soviet Dracotechnikal Institute continued to experiment with black dragons into the 1980s, with some success in reconnaissance fly-over missions. With the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Dracotechnikal Institute was defended and today is a private company. Repeated charges by the World Dragon Protection Fund of breeding to sell to private owners have been denied, hut a complete accounting of the institute has never been allowed. 100
Wartime Propaganda Soviet-era propaganda poster featuring the Crimean dragon. Courtesy of the Simferopol Historical Society. Simferopol Dracodrome 1960s U2 photograph of the Simferopol Dracodrome. Courtesy of the United States Army.
Black Dragon on a painting of the Crimean dragon requires ging together all of my field sketches and notes into a illustration. To begin, I catalogue all the elements that dragon embodies: Aerodynamic body Black markings Rugged Crimean landscape Create a Thumbnail Sketch Working from my sketches, I roughed out some ideas on paper to help me design my painting. I want to show the dragon in flight and include the iconic Swallow's Nest Castle in the background. I quickly decided that an aerial composition would be a dramatic format to showcase this beautiful animal. My initial design shows the dragon in a dramatic, foreshortened pose. Although I like the idea. I decided to flip the dragon's position 90 degrees in order to better the sleek, aerodynamic profile of the dragon, and foreshorten the wings instead. cRUflfcM рв'.бЫ 2 Begin the Preliminary Computer Sketch Create a 7“ x 11* (18cm x 28cm) 100dpi grayscale Photoshop file. Carve out the forms of the design with large, broad paint strokes. Begin the forms of the background elements. 102
3 Continue Rendering the Sketch Drawing and painting is not a stepty-step process, but rather an evolution. The painting grows and changes as you work. I do not have a fully formed image in my head of the finished drawing when I begin work. Think of your work like a lump of clay that can be shaped and transformed as you wish, but also remember that, like a sculpture, there is an armature of anatomy underneath. 4 Create the Background Architecture Apply the linear perspective grid to the drawing and use reference for the castle to render the background. I pull reference photos from the Internet and keep them on a separate layer to guide me as I am painting.
TUTORIAL: PERSPECTIVE Perspective is the artistic illusion of making objects appear to recede into the distance. There are essentially three kinds of perspective—linear perspective, atmospheric perspective and foreshortening. In painting the Crimean black dragon, I combined all three techniques to enhance the depth of the image. • Linear perspective: To achieve the bird’s-eye view of the Crimean coast, use the tools of linear perspective: horizon line and vanishing point. The horizon line is the line where the land meets the sky. When standing on the ground, it appears in our middle vision and remains straight and level. Raising the horizon line adds more ground into the picture and creates a bird’s-eye view. The vanishing point is the point to which all lines recede into the distance. This is where the computer becomes an indispensable tool. Snapping straight lines is simple using the line (L) tool in a separate layer. 1 begin by enlarging the canvas size of my painting until I have enough room on all sides to incorporate the linear perspective grid. 1 establish a point in which the vertical perspective lines will recede and mark that vanishing point 1.1 can then snap lines using the line tool in a separate layer, repeating this technique for vanishing points 2 and 3. Atmospheric perspective: We have all stood on a hill, looked toward the horizon and seen how objects recede into the mist. This is known as atmospheric or aerial perspective. As objects recede into space, the atmosphere between the viewer and the object becomes thicker, making it harder to see through. Color becomes desatu-rated, details become less distinct, edges of forms become blurry and contrast reduces. Foreshortening: This is a perspective technique where the dimensions of a form arc dramatically compressed to create the illusion of depth. When drawing dragons, foreshortening is often used to render the entire dragons form within the confined space of a composition and to create a dramatic scene. r Atmospheric Perspective Painting atmospl>eric perspective combined with foreshortening helped depict the illusion of dimension in the tall and the legs. Linear Perspective In the example of the Crimean black dragon painting. I raised the horizon line dramatically. Once I found my vanishing points and created the perspective grid. I cropped the image back to its original format, leaving a perfect perspective template on a separate layer tirat could reveal or hide as I painted the architecture. Foreshortening In the Crimean black dragon painting, the effects of forestwtening were utilized to show the wings fully extended and create a sense of the 50 feet (15m) that spreads from wingtip to wingtip. You can see how compressed the space between the wings becomes (outlined by the ellipse), and the dramatic difference in size of the two wings.
5 Continue Developing Background Details Continue refining the background elements until the necessary detail has been achieved. It is much easier to work out these details now than having to alter the painting at a later stage. 6 Set the Base Color Once you're satisfied with the rendering, change the painting's mode to RGB color. Then, using the Color Balance slider, alter its hue to a warm violet. This color will allow you to transition easily between the cool blue background and the dark warm dragon foreground.
8 Establish Shadows Add a 50% opacity Multiply mode layer over this to create a quick shadow layer to help unify the lighting and form. 9 Refine Background Elements Working on the background in a new 100% opacity Normal layer, render the green details of the shore and light tones of the castle, looking at reference to properly capture the colors and textures of the Swallow's Nest Castle and the Yalta coast. Remember that all of these objects are in the distance, so under the rules of atmospheric perspective, the contrasts and colors should not be as stark as the foreground. 7 Lay In Local Colors in a new 50% opacity Normal mode layer, block in the local colors of the forms in the painting.
Ю Refine the Focal Point Refine the detail and contrast of the focal point: the dragon's face. Even in this tight fragment the use of all three perspective tools is apparent. The final rendering of the dragon takes time and patience. Here the paint brushes become very small and the paint becomes increasingly opaque. / /
Chinese Dragon & Dracorexus cathidaeus Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/ D.cath idaeus Size: 50 (15m) Wingspan: 100' (30m) Weight: 1.0.000 lbs (4,550kg) Recognition: Broad narrow wing with only one elongated supra-metacarpal; yellow-gold markings vary by individual and season: ornate antlers and manes on males Conservation status: Endangered Also known as: Yellow dragon, gold dragon, golden dragon, (pinyin) Huang Long

ese Expedition We, however, were not headed for the rural mountains of China; we went directly into one of the most polluted areas of the world, the Bohai Economic Rim, perhaps the largest industrial center on the planet. The Bohai is estimated to be home to over 100 million humans—more than the entire population of Italy and England combined within a space roughly the size of Iceland. We’ve come here to see the native habitat of the Chinese yellow dragon and the last remaining specimen that lives in the wild here, Tong Long Huo. Once in Dalian, we were greeted by our Chinese guide, Qian Mei Ling. Ms. Qian is a graduate student of the Wehai Institute of Natural Sciences as well as the leading resident specializing in the care of the dragon Tong Long Huo at the Bohai Dragon Sanctuary. She was assigned as our guide for the duration of our stay in China. Leaving Crimea to continue on our expedition, Conceit and I came to the most challenging leg of our journey. in Beijing, China, we then transferred to Dalian, vhere our journey began. The Chinese yellow dragon, one of the more abundant of the Great Dragons, is only listed as endangered because access to this majestic animal has been strictly regulated by the Chinese government for many decades. Only within the past few years have Chinese authorities allowed free access for tourists and draconologists to come and study this long sought-after animal. The Chinese yellow dragon is most commonly found in the mountainous rural regions and islands of Asia. no
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food, the Chinese yellow dragon is known to soar for days, ranging far from its lair in the search for food. Its massive glider wings enable the dragon to achieve astounding altitudes, soaring on the Pacific jet stream as high as 25,000 feet (7,600m) and reachingas far as the Hawaiian Islands. The primary food source of the Chinese yellow dragon is fish and cetaceans, depending on the size of the individual. Its unique habit, however, is that it can eat its catch while in flight, allowing it to stay out at sea for long periods of time. The Chinese yellow dragon is a rather nomadic animal only building a lair or nest when it needs to breed. The Chinese yellow dragon has a unique physiology that ; distinguishes it from other species within the Dracorexidae family. It is the only member of the Great Dragons that grows fur like the Arctic dragon family. The Chinese Yellow dragon also has five digits on each of its legs instead of four. It has the greatest wingspan of the Great Dragons, with the fifth of its supra-metacarpals extended similar to a pterosaur. The vast glider-like wings of the Chinese yellow dragon are specifically designed for soaring. Unlike other Great Dragons that may soar for several hours while hunting for 112
Mane and Facial Features The distinctive mane of the Chinese yellow dragon is thought to be used as a courtship charm. The thick mane, a mixture of fur and elongated scales, grows more ornate and full on the males as they get older. The nasal horn, unique to the males, also grows more prominent with age. Chinese Yellow Dragon Skull The majestic antlers on the males of the species are greatly prized throughout the world. In 1978, the World Dragon Protection Fund made it illegal to own or sell Great Dragon horns, but it is still possible to acquire some rare specimens in the Asian black markets. Chinese Yellow Dragon Male Overhead, Color Change In recent decades the coloration of the Chinese yellow dragon has muted to better camouflage itself in the heavy industrial population of central China.
a lush and beautiful land, the Bohai Sea is now completely dead, destroyed by pollution and overpopulation. With an active oil drilling industry in the Bohai and Yellow Seas adding to the environ-atal impact, the Chinese yellow dragons food source been depleted for nearly 50 years. The Chinese government has been working hard over the past few decades to undo some of the damage. Today the yellow lives away from the industrial centers of China, Taiwan and Japan and is beginning to gain in numbers, in the Bohai Straits, Tong Long Huo is the last specimen, protected, fed and cared for by the Chinese government. Tong Long Huo lives at Dragon Rock, where he is visited by millions of tourists a year. Before industrialization, Chinese yellow dragons would congregate along the Bohai Straits between the Yellow and the Bohai Seas. This area is known for its historical concentration of yellow dragons because the bottleneck in the straits allows the dragons to hunt efficiently for porpoises and large fish that traveled in these waters. I he environment of these seas has decreased drastically due to industrial runoff from surrounding cities, so the Bohai Sea is considered a dead sea, forcing the Chinese yellow dragon to travel farther from its native nesting grounds to find food. Industrial contamination is also blamed for early death and hatchling mortality among the dragons, further reducing their numbers. Today, the habitat of this huge animal is scattered due to industrialization, war and the decimation of sea life in its habitat by overfishing and pollution in surrounding waterways. Although the yellow dragon is on the protected list of the World Dragon Protection Fund, it is still actively poached by the Asian black market. The scales, bones, fur, organs and especially the horns of the Chinese yellow dragon are believed to contain powerful medicines to cure everything from arthritis to cancer. The scarcity of the dragon, along with its possession being illegal, makes the Chinese yellow dragon one of the most valuable commodities in the world. 114
Traveling in the Bohai Sanctuary Access to Tong Long Huo is limited to charted tours aboard boats like this one. Fortunately, we were granted special access by the Bohai Dragon Sanctuary. Tong Long Huo In 2003, Tong Long Huo became the first living creature to became a World Heritage Site. The Black Market The World Dragon Protection Fund scours markets like this one in Wehai to report to the authorities the sale of illegal dragon products. While amphiptere eggs, fey dragons and drakes are legal and are a popular food, the yellow dragon and the Chinese storm dragon are protected. Dragon Rock Dragon Rock, home to Tong Long Huo. has been a location of pride for hundreds of years with millions of visitors arriving to leave prayers for the august dragon. In 1987, the Chinese government built this refuge and limited tourist access.
History The dragons of Asia, and specifically China, have been linked to cultural, national and religious identity since recorded history. Nowhere else in the world is the dragon treated with such universal reverence. In parts of China the people sometimes even refer to themselves as “the i descendants of the dragon.” In every other culture that we visited, the dragon has always been a creature of fear and destruction, to be slain or destroyed. In China, the Great Dragons represent an elemental force of nature most commonly associated with water, the sea and storms. Being so integrally linked to the sea, the yellow dragon is a powerful totem. The dragons opposite is the Fenghuang or Chinese Phoenix (Quetzacoatylusfengincendi). Historically there have been many dragons catalogued as Chinese dragons. Although several species of amphi-ptere, drakes, wyrm and others live within the same habitat, only one species of Great Dragon lives on the Asian continent. Most often throughout history the Chinese yellow dragon has been misidentilied with the Chinese storm dragon and the temple dragon. 16th Century Chinese Scroll Painting This illustration of a Chinese yellow dragon is one of the few accurate 1 depictions from Chinese history. Courtesy of the Wehai Draconological 1 Institute. 116
 Yellow Dragon Head Variations There are more than 30 documented species of yellow dragons on the Asian continent and adjoining islands. As you can see from these different heads, yellow dragon depictions vary greatly. Chinese Statue Dragons represent good fortune and statues like this one are for sale in every market In China. 117
DEMONSTRATION Chinese Yellow Dragon 1 Develop Thumbnail Sketches . Sketch the Chinese yellow dragon in various poses to find a design that will best demonstrate its unique attributes. accumulated during my expedition to China. Using these sketches as my guidelines I can begin to create an accurate image of this majestic creature using these main aspects: • Broad wingspan • Unique silhouette • Environment of the Bohai Sea To conceptualize an illustration of the Chinese yellow dragon, I first go over all the notes and sketches that I
3 Carve the Shapes Use an Eraser tool or white paint to cut hack into shapes, moving back and forth with positive and negative spaces until you are satisfied with the composition. 2 Establish the Underpainting in a new layer at 100% opacity. Multiply mode, use a variety of texture brushes and a narrow range of tonal colors to establish the general spattering texture and form of the elements of the composition with a basic silhouette. I used some golden maple leaves that l brought back with me for inspiration of the dragon's mottling.
Digital Painting Desktop ► This is an example of how I display all the windows that I use most frequently. I prefer to keep my palette and toolboxes on my left, a habit of being left-handed and also a traditional painter for so many years. All of the layers are named so I can keep track of them. The brushes window is arranged in order of use. most popular kept at the top. Arrange and create your own brush set to suit your personal style. Complete a full value underpainting establishing all the details of the Chinese yellow dragon. In the detail of the you can see the colors and texture makeup. 120
5 Create Local Color Create a new layer and begin establishing the semiopaque local color. In traditional painting, this would be a color wash. Digitally. this can be achieved by toggling the layer opacity. 41
and Layers TUTORIAL: DIGITAL PAINTING WITH MODES With the layering feature, you can paint each stage of a painting on its own layer (like an acetate overlay sheet), then control each layer independently. In Photoshop, create a new layer by choosing Layer menu > New to set each layer to any of several blending modes that govern how its colors blend with those on other layers. You can also hide a layer temporarily by clicking its eye icon. The layer modes 1 use in this book are: • Normal layer mode. This is the default and simplest mode. On a layer in Normal mode, painting with a 100% opaque brush covers up whatever is on the base layer; painting with a lower-opacity brush allows the new color to blend with the color the way you would expect traditional colors to blend. • Multiply layer mode. On a layer in Multiply mode, the color of the base layer gets multiplied by the new color, resulting in a color that is always darker than the base color. Brushing repeatedly on the same area produces a progressively darker color, rather like repeated strokes of a marker. Working With Layers II you turn this painting on edge and look at the layers of the painting in an exploded view. what will it look like? I liken It to a series of paintings on glass. The digital artist is able to transform or alter each layer independently and even produce parallel versions of layers. 122
Tutorial: Opacity and modes Overlaying different parts of the painting using layer image. Scan an interesting texture and experiment opacity and layer mode can dramatically alter your with opacity and modes in Photoshop. Step A I begin by importing a grayscale scan of texture from my texture library as a new layer. To import a picture, simply open the picture file, select all. and then copy and paste the image into your painting. Step B Edit > Transform > Scale to fit the image to the stee you need. Then Image > Adjust > Color Balance to transform the layer's color. Layer Opacity 100%. Layer Mode: Normal.

7 Add the Finishing Touches In the final stage of the painting, add finishing touches to the focal point—the head shooting fire. Thin opaque brushstrokes using strong contrasts and rich colors help tighten the rendenng.
SPECIFICATIONS Classification: Draco/Aero-dracoforme/Dracorexidae/ Dracorexus/D. klallaminus Wingspan: 85' (26m) Weight: 20.000 lbs. (9000kg) Recognition: Mottled brown and tan markings: broad face with short muzzle: twin forked tail Habitat: Northwestern North American coastal regions Conservation status: Vulnerable d Elwah dragon ■ Dracorexus klallaminus Also known as: Brown dragon, owl dragon, Thurv derbird. lightning serpent. Kuhnuxwah, Webber’s dragon. Salish dragon

Expedition eparting China for the final leg of our expedition, Con-ceil and I arrived safely in Seattle to complete our circum-of the globe in search of dragons. From Seattle, nceil and I continued our trek by traveling onward to the city of Port Angeles on the border of Olympic National Park and the Elwha National Dragon Sanctuary (ENDS). There we meet our guide, Sheriff Meriwether Johnson, who is not only the director of the Elwah Dragon Sanctuary Research Center, but is also a member of the local tribal council and chief dragon ranger as well as sheriff of the ENDS. We joined Sheriff Johnson on a routine patrol into the back country of the ENDS to draw this amazing dragon in its natural habitat. Sheriff Johnson told us about the sacred and important role that the Elwah brown dragon has played over the millennia. The native people of this area have lived alongside the dragon for centuries. He explained that the majority of his job is done on horseback patrolling and protecting the dragons inside the sanctuary. IAH NATIONAL DRAGON SANCTUARY Back Country Permit Telephone # Vehicle Description (Tipo de vcftculo) Actrvoy to tM Conduced (check » ihal i&i) 'dipñoflM «HtwIüñSr y* yC Guided To«» Comirerelal Guide Dragon s. the preserve are endangered Hunting or harassing animals within the park is i FEDERAL CRIME) , , THE GATE LEADING OUT OF THE 8/y _______ PARK IS LOCKED AI b_ SEA-TAC FÎ2800 a ay

Elwah brown dragon is one of the most distinctive of the Dracorexidae family. 'I he broad face and muzzle that give the dragon its uncanny resemblance an owl has the same function as its avian relative. The broad cone of the dragons face acts as a sound amplifier focusing subtle noise into the dragons ear canals. Where most Great Dragons rely upon sight and smell to hunt* the Elwah brown dragon hunts by sound. The fog-shrouded coasts of the Pacific Northwest make hunting difficult. The dragon uses its high piercing screech to echolocate itself and its relationship to its prev. 130
Elwah Brown Dragon Egg, 12" (30cm) Elwah Brown Dragon Hatchlings A clutch of Elwah brown dragon eggs usually consists of 2 to 6 hatchlings. Elwah Brown Dragon Skull The skull of the Elwah brown dragon shows the large cranial and olfactory spaces that allow the dragon to hunt in the thick fog of the Pacific Northwest. Elwah Brown Dragon Foot The hind foot of the Elwah brown dragon allows for agile grappling of animals from the water. Elwah Brown Dragon Head The broad head of the Elwah brown dragon has a unique design similar to that of the Strigiformes order of birds commonly known as owls. It helps focus sound.
untouched Pacific coast ol I? as far south as: OR The Klwah brown dragon is the newest of the Great Dragon ecies to be discovered and studied by western naturalists, owed the brown dragon to remain relatively by human interference for most of its history, ating a very healthy habitat for the animal. Ranging as far north as Alaska and as far south as the coast of Oregon, the brown dragon has been sighted San Francisco and as far cast as Seattle. Falling under protected status for most of the 20th century, the ■vah brown dragon is second only to the Icelandic white dragon in population. It is believed that over 5,000 Klwah brown dragons are alive today, living off the abundant food supplies of the Pacific fish and whale populations. Hunting for Food Seals and porpoises that populate the Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca are a plentiful food supply for the Elwah brown dragon. Killer whales are also prey to the dragon. Elwah Brown Dragon Habitat Riding into the Elwah Dragon Sanctuary along the coast of the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The subtle brown tones of the region reveal the intricate textures that the dragon uses as its camouflage.
 Elwah Brown Dragon Nest The Elwah brown dragon is a social animal. Like its avian cousins, it will care for its young until they are old enough to leave the lair. Here a male has brought a harbor seal to a dragonlmg born earlier that spring. Elwah Brown Dragon Territory Like other Great Dragons, the Elwah brown dragon will use its fire breath to scorch the earth immediately surrounding its lair. Sheriff Johnson teaches us that this is done so new parents can better survey the landscape for predators such as wolves or coyotes that may attack their hatchlings. Elwah Brown Dragon Lair Concell inspects what Sheriff Johnson informs us is a vacant dragon lair.
History Although the Elwah brown dragon has been known by the Native American tribes of the Pacific Northwest for millennia, the first European account of the brown dragon took place in 1778. Captain Cooks third circumnavigation of the world brought his ship HMS Resolution to Vancouver Island for over a month of that year. The ship’s artist, John Webber, documented the dragon for the National Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge. It was this encounter that gave the dragon the first moniker of Webbers dragon. In 1805, Lewis and Clark arrived in the Pacific Northwest. It was from the accounts of this expedition that the misspelling of the dragon’s name was first made, and the dragon was officially classified in the I.innean system as “Elwah” in 1823. Early naturalists learned that the dragon was referred to by Native American tribes as the 'Ihunder-bird and played an important role in their spiritual celebrations. The lliunderbird represents the awesome power of nature and a respect for life. Referred to as a Kuhnuxwah in some Pacific Northwest languages, in other indigenous mythologies the dragon is able to shape-shift into human form. Unfortunately, many of the oral histories of these tribes have been lost forever. Ihe relative isolation and abundance of the Elway brown dragon made the great beast a favorite for American and European sport hunters. In 1909, former president Theodore Roosevelt shot three brown dragons during an expedition to the region. The president was an ardent supporter of the Elwah National Dragon Sanctuary, which was dedicated in 1917. In 1923 the Canadian government created the Canadian National Elwah Preserve, and today the International Elwah Dragon Sanctuary is the only international dragon preserve. In 1982, the Elwah National Dragon Sanctuary’s control was transferred to the Elwah Tribal Council, making it the only national park under the jurisdiction of a Native American tribe. Elwah Brown Dragon Totem The tnbes of the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia have revered the brown dragon for millennia. The Thunderbird is one of their most sacred animals.
Elwah Pottery, circa 18th Century Reconstruction of a brown dragon depicted on Native American pottery. Courtesy of the Ehvah Dragon Sanctuary Research Center. The Elwah Brown Dragon Dance The Elwah Dragon Sanctuary Research Center features traditional brown dragon dances. TrtJurf to Elwah Amulet Amulets like this one made of the claw of a brown dragon would be very important magical items owned by medicine men or tribal chiefs. Courtesy of the Elwah Dragon Sanctuary Research Center. Lewis and Clark Journal This page from the 1805 Lewis and Clark Expedition log shows a careful rendering of what must have been a brown dragon carcass. Whether the Native Americans hunted the animal is uncertain. Courtesy of the American Institute of Natural Sciences. New York. 135 V
 DRAGON 1 Create a Thumbnail Sketch Create a series of thumbnail sketches to help you settle on the pose and features you want to include in your piece. This is an important part of the planning process, so don’t overlook it. from our expedition, I begin a new painting of Elwah brown dragon in my studio. To help me illustrate the Elwahs unique characteristics, I first itemize what ant to include in my painting: • Distinctive Strigian body type (owl-like) Forked tail Tonal textures of the Pacific Northwest Mottled brown patterning
 2 Complete Preliminary Value Sketch For this painting, I decided to take one of the sketches that I did in the field as my design. Using a flatbed scanner I imported the drawing into a new grayscale Photoshop file: File > Import > Select > Scanner. Using broad flat brushes, l roughed in the forms with semiopaque paint to establish values. You can see how a generalized silhouette form of the dragon is developed and more detail is progressively carved out of this mass using texture brushes.
TUTORIAL: CREATING TEXT ~ Texture is an artistic term that ranges across all the disciplines and creative pursuits. Whether discussing the texture of a piece of music, sculpture, food or even landscape design, texture is a tangible, tactile quality that gives a work its dimension. Whether you work traditionally or digitally, texture will always play an important part in your work. It is texture, after all, that makes objects in your paintings appear natural. When all of the objects in a composition are rendered with the same texture, the image tends to have an artificial quality as if molded from plastic. This is a common tendency in digital painting since the computer is programmed to create the same effect with every brushstroke. Rendering texture digitally takes extra work to overcome the computers desire to create perfect gradients and shapes. Here are sample textures from my texture library that I use to add natural texture to my digital work. These are very simple to make, using modeling paste or construction caulk and then scanning the effects using a flatbed scanner. Textured objects and materials from around your home are also excellent. Look around and see what you can find! Digital Brushes One of the greatest tools granted the digital painter is an infinite number of brushes at your disposal at all times, and the ability to create your own custom brushes on demand. Working with the default brushes, you can toggle texture, scatter, dual brush and patterns to customize a brush set that will be uniquely your own.
 3Tone and Texture After altering the landscape design to include a small Elwah hatchling. I begin considering my colors. Changing the image mode to RGB. I use color balance to shift from black and white to warm browns. Since this image will be almost monochromatic. I try to concentrate on the subtle tonal shifts in the color scheme and a wide variety of textural brushes to define the forms. TONALITY Tonality (or tone), whether in music or painting, is the subtle variation of an element in a piece. In painting, it simply means the subtle variation of hue or color within a painting while staying within a muted gray range. You can have blue tones or red tones or in this case brown tones. Though the hue (color) shifts, the saturation stays low and the value does not shift. To express variations in texture and tone, concentrate on the subtle shifts in values. This can be a fairly complicated concept that requires practice. Go outside at night and let your eyes adjust to the darkness and try to look at the difference between the colors of forms. This is a great exercise in perceiving tones and shades. Notice that when the palette of this painting is desaturated into grayscale. the tonal range is almost imperceptible. Value scale of the finished painting.
it 4 Develop the Background and Facial Features Developing the image with a limited color palette forces me to rely on brush textures and contrast. Subtle tones of brown differentiate the forms. Cool browns with hints of blue define the stone, green-hued tones define the trees, while the dragon itself is made of the warmest red-brown tones. In the detail of the dragon's face the sharpest value contrasts In the image help draw the viewer's eye to the focal point. 140

Dragon Taxonomic Chart PENNADRACOFORME (Feathered Dragon!:) ORCADRACOFORME (Marine Dragons) - QUETZECOATYLIDAE DRACIMEXIDAE (Coatyls) CETUSIDAE (Feydragons) (Sea Lions) WYVERIDAE DRAGONIGUILLIDAE (Wyverns) (Sea Serpents) VOLUCRISIDAE (Dragonettes) AMPHIPTERIDAE (Amphitere) 142
CLASS ORDER * FAMILY GENUS SPECIES
Dragon Anatomy All eight species of Great Dragons within the family Draco-rexidae have a similar anatomy. This is what defines them as a group. All the species have six limbs, hollow bones, binocular vision and an elongated tail. First classified in the v Systcma Naturae in 1735 by Carl Linnaeus. strength to bite through a full-grown killer whale. This is ten times more powerful than an adult Nile crocodile. Note also the large cavities for olfactory. ocular and auditory perception. Dragon Tooth The teeth of the Great Dragon are generally small in comparison to its body. The dragon's primary weapon is Its powerful beak that it uses like a meat hook to tear at flesh. The teeth are used for slicing and chewing meat from the bone, so they are small and serrated like steak knives. 144
Dragon Foot The dragon claws serve multiple functions: grappling prey, teanng. as well as agile climbing along the cliffs of its home. Dragon Eye All Great Dragons possess powerful eyesight that functions both penpherally and bmocularty. Their eyes are small, and bony ridges above and below the eye allow air to flow around and not directly into it while in flight. Most Great Dragon species possess a clear secondary eyelid, similar to sharks and eagles, that closes over the eye during «eeceeoec-
Appendix 3 Dragon Flight A mystery that has surrounded Great Dragons for centuries has always been their ability to fly. How such a massive creature is able to become airborne mystified scientists and biologists until the 18th century when dragon llight was studied and understood. Some early treatises surmised that a dragon contained a bladder of lighter-than-air gas that created buoyancy similar to a balloon, while others contended that dragon llight was only possible through the use of magic. 'I he truth behind a dragon’s flight is none of these, but pure science. The first aspect to explaining dragon flight is the structure of dragon bones, which arc intricate webbed honeycombs that reduces the weight of the bones by almost 50 percent. Similar to a bird’s bones, they are light and strong, thus reducing the amount of lift required to take flight. A second factor of dragon flight is the wing surface area. The surface area of a dragon’s wings is quite large compared to other flying creatures, especially when considering that the wings themselves comprise only about 60 percent of the lifting area. This phenomenon is based upon the structure of the dragon scales. Serving a greater purpose than protection, the scales (aerodentides) also provide what is called “dragon microlift.” This evolutionary trait is very similar to that of a shark’s skin, where tiny serrated surfaces actually reduce the drag and create lift over the body. Only recently have scientists understood that the aerodenticles of dragons are a type of protofeather, a hybrid between scales and feathers that have also been discovered in the dragons distant cousin, the dinosaur. A dragon is able to bristle its scales at takeoff and landing, creating hundreds of small lifting surfaces, effectively increasing its surface area almost twofold. This allows dragons to reduce their minimum air speed, not fall out of the sky, and maintain dexterity while in flight. I his increased surface area reduces the necessity of wing-flapping, making the muscles required to move the wings fairly small. When soaring, the scales flatten to create a smoother surface, increasing air speed. Dragon microlift has only begun to be understood by scientists and is now being tested on man-made flying platforms. Third, the larger species of dragons always lift off from a high perch facing into the wind and/or at a running speed Muybridge's Dragon in Right. 1879 The scientific knowledge of dragon flight and locomotion was greatly advanced by the pioneering photographic studies of Muybridge in the late 19th century. This series of photographs of a jndinavian blue dragon was the first documented photography of dragon flight. Courtesy of
in order to create velocity. This practice is also seen in large species of birds like the albatross. Most of the Great Dragons will stay grounded during periods of low wind. Dragons never allow themselves to land in low country or heavily forested regions where the winds and/or their wingspan would be hindered. These terrains are left to flightless dragons like wyrms, hydras and drakes. Great Dragons live along seaside cliffs where the ocean breezes create almost perpetual high winds. Once airborne, dragons tend to soar on the wind and thermal updrafts, hunting in flight, and returning to their high perch or nest with their catch. During periods of extended low wind Great Dragons often descend to the water to feed and then climb back up to their lairs. Most recently scientists have discovered that the size of the dragons brain that aids in its ability to fly. The flocculus is the part of the brain that regulates balance and aids in orienting a dragon in the air. Because of the size and complexity of a Great Dragons wings, millions of nerves controlling thousands of muscle movements a minute are all regulated by the flocculus which needs to be oversized. The Great Dragons consequently have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of any animal. Aerodenticles The specifically designed aerodenticle scales aid a dragon's (tight by creating microlift across the surface of the dragon s body. Wingspan The wingspan of a Great Dragon is approximate to a WWII-era heavy bomber. .i
Dragon Poses To better understand dragon art and to portray dragons realistically, it is necessary to understand the fundamental poses of dragons. Established for use in heraldry during the medieval period, there are eight standard poses that art referred to throughout this book. They are as follows: Dragon Dormant Dragon Couchant Dragon Passant Visit impact-books.com/greatdragons for awesome bonus materials from Dracopedia author William O’Connor! Dragon Rampant 148

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Composition: A general term regarding the arrangement of forms and elements in an artistic work. Contrast: The juxtaposition of opposing qualities in elements (e.g., black vs. white, rough vs. smooth, straight vs. curved, blue vs. orange). Countershading: The transitioning of an object's value to increase its contrast against an adjacent value. Ébauche: (French) A semiopaque underpainting of color. Focal point: The point in a pictorial composition to which the viewer's attention is drawn. Form: The shape of an element in a composition. Format: The general outer dimensions of a composition. Synonym: aspect ratio. French easel: A folding easel for painting outdoors, first invented in the 19th century and made famous by the Impressionists. Fulcrum: The point in a pictorial composition upon which the arrangement balances. Glaze: 1. In traditional painting, the use of transparent, thin color to tint. 2. In digital painting, see: overlay. Ground: In traditional art. the prepared form of a surface (e.g., gesso). Hatching: The use of interlacing lines in drawing or painting to create texture and form. Also: crosshatching. Hue: 1. An object's appearance on the ultraviolet spectrum. Commonly synonymous with color. 2. Term used in manufactured paints when a hazardous pigment has been replaced, but the color has remained the same (e.g.. Cobalt Blue hue). Impasto: The use of thick paint. Linear perspective: The use of measured lines and vanishing points to create the illusion of space. Local color: The general color of an object without reference to value or chroma. Medium: Any material used to make art (e.g.. digital, oil. pencil, ink). Mode: In digital art. a layer or brush's ability to interact with any other function (e.g.. in Photoshop: Normal. Multiply. Color Dodge, Overlay. Lighten). Mottling/mottle: 1. Art. To paint using blotches or patches of color that, when viewed as a whole, are more natural than a single flat color. 2. Biology. The ability of animals to create complex camouflage patterns. Multiply: Digital term referring to a mode of layer or brush that compounds the current work with any previous work. Negative space: The forms created outside and around the positive elements in a composition. Sometimes referred to as empty space or open space. Notan: (Japanese) Art of composing black and white forms to create imagery. Opaque/opacity: Traditional or digital reference to paint, layer or object that cannot be seen through or does not allow light to pass through. See also: semiopaque, transparent, translucent. Antonym: transparent. Overlay: Digital mode of layer or paint by which color is added without compounding its shading effect on previous work. See also: glaze. Pen: 1. Any drawing instrument that uses ink. 2. A digital drawing instrument used with a tablet or screen. Synonym: stylus. Pencil: Any drawing instrument that uses a hardened graphite or earth material to create linear marks. Colors and textures vary widely.

INDEX Acadia. 14-15 . Acadian green dragon. 12-13 • behavior. 18-19 ' . biolog>’. 16-17 demonstration. 22-27 flying displays. 19 habitat. 18 ! history. 20-21 , ' mating dances. 19 names. 13 plumage. 17 range of. 14 sleeping pose. 19 Adobe Photoshop. 10.25,39,122. See afso Brushes, digital: Color: Layers: Modes: Paint color specifications. 42.57 grayscale drawings. 25.39.55.71.87. 102.137 resizing images. 41.57 Aerodenticles. 147 Art studio, portable. 8 Atmosphere, and color. 88 Background. 26.40-41.58.74.90.140 architecture. 103,105-106 Black dragon. See Cnmean black dragon Blue dragon. See Scandinavian blue dragon Brown dragon. See Elwah brown dragon Brushes custom. 138 digital. 11.27.55.120-121.137-138 texture. 119.137 Camera, as toot. 8 Chalk. 9 China. 110-111 Chinese yellow dragon. 108-109 behavior. 114-115 biology. 112-113 demonstration. 118-125 feet. 112 head variations. 117 history. 116-117 mane and facial features. 113 names. 108 Color, 105. See also Hues: Tints balancing, 58. 73.89.105.139 base. 25,57. 73.89.105 complementary. 43.73 developing. 42 establishing. 73 local. 25.89.106 principles of. 88 tonal. 119 on. 56.70-71 ? balanced. 22 fMEJornputers. 10-11,55 Contrast. 26-27. 73.140 Corel Painter. 10 Countershading. 41 Crimea. 94-95,98.100 Crimean black dragon, 92-93 behavior. 98-99 biology. 96-97 demonstration. 102-107 head. 97 history. 100-101 lairs. 99 names. 92 da Vinci's wing. 85 Demonstrations Acadian green dragon. 22-27 Chinese yellow dragon. 118-125 Cnmean black dragon. 102-107 Elwah brown dragon. 136-141 Icelandic white dragon. 38-43 Ligurian gray dragon. 86-91 Scandinavian blue dragon. 54-59 Welsh red dragon. 70-75 Detail. 27.41.43.57.59. 75.91.107.125. 141 Digital painting. 120-121 tutorial. 122 Dragon fire . 72,124 Dragons anatomy of. 23,49.144-145 eggs. 16.33.49.64.81.96.112.131 eyes. 145 feet. 112.145 and flight, 146-147 hatchlings. 48.99.131 juveniles. 33.65 poses. 148-149 skulls. 52.113.131.144 taxonomy. 142-143 teeth. 83.144 Dragon's Breath (flower). 30 Elwah brown dragon, 126-127 behavior. 132-133 biology. 130-131 demonstration. 136-141 feet. 131 habitat and terntory, 132-133 head and skull. 131 history. 134-135 huntir^. 132 lairs, 133 names, 126 nests. 133 Ebauche. 42,58 Eraser tool. 119 Expeditions Acadian. 14-15 Chinese. 110-111 Crimean, 94-95 Elwah. 128-129 Icelandic. 30-31 Ligurian. 78-79 Scandinavian. 46-47 Welsh. 62-63 Fire, dragon. 72.124 Focal point. 107.125 Foreshortening. 102.104 Fulcrum, locating. 56 Glossary. 154-155 Golden Section. 56 Gradation. 24 Gray dragon. See Ligurian gray dragon Green dragon. See Acadian green dragon Hatching (with pencil). 24 Heraldry, medieval. 148 Highlights. 87 Hues variations in, 139 of white. 38 Iceland. 30-31.34 Icelandic white dragon, 28-29 behavior. 34-35 biology. 32-33 color and markings. 32 demonstration. 38-43 history. 36-37 horns, 33 mating habits. 35 names. 28 nests. 35 sleeping pose. 35 Impasto paint texture, 58 Italy (Italian Riviera). 78-79.82 Keyboards, for computer. 11 Layers. 120.138 of color. 58.73 creating new. 23.25-26.58.106.119. 121 of details. 57 digital painting with. 122 for reference photos. 103 semitransparent. 42.58 Light sources, 72 Lighting and color. 88 practicing. 74
Lighting effects, 71-72 Liguria, 78-79,82 Ligurian gray dragon, 76-77 behavior. 82-83 biology, 80-81 demonstration. 86-91 frills, face and neck. 80,85 history. 84-85 names. 76 sunbathing. 83 teeth. 83 wings. 81 Lines directional. 56 working with. 24 Materials, for drawing, 8-9 Medieval stave church. 53 Modes color dodge. 124 digital painting with. 122 multiply. 26.90.106.119.123 normal. 25. 73.89.106.123 and opacity. 58.119.123 RGB. 25.42.57. 73.89,105.139 Mouse, for computer. 11 Narwhals. 37 Negative space. 119 Paint opaque. 26.58,74 semiopaque, 137 Paper, watercolor. 8 Patterns. 56 Pencils, 9 drawing with, 24 Pens.9 Perspective atmospheric. 26.90.104,106 forced, 41 linear, 103-104 Photoshop. See Adobe Photoshop Pinwheeling, 56 Positive space. 119 Printers. 11 Red dragon. See Welsh red dragon Scandinavia. 46-47 Scandinavian blue dragon. 44-45.146 behavior, 50-51 biology. 48-49 color variations. 49 demonstration. 54-59 eating habits. 51 fishing. 51 history, 52-53 hunting. 51 names. 45 Scanners, 11.137 Sculpture, practicing lighting with. 74 Shading. 41 Shadows.26.87.90.106 Sketchbooks, 8,11 Sketching. 22-24.38.54-55.69-70.86-87, 102-103.118.136 digital. 39.55.87 Software. 10-11. See also Adobe Photoshop Stalker cottages, 63 Studio setup. 10 Stylus, for digital painting. 10-11 Tablets, digital. 11 Taxonomic chart, dragons. 142-143 Texture. 42.58.139,141 creating. 138 layering. 138 tonal. 74 Texture brushes. 119.137 Tints. 38 Tonality, 139 Tone. 139.141 Tools. 8-9 digital. 10-11 Tutorials Composition Basics. 56 Creating Texture, 138 Digital Painting With Modes and Layers. 122-123 Dragon Fire! Lighting Effects and Light Sources. 72 Drawing Basics, 24 Perspective. 104 Principles of Color, 88 White-on-Whtte. 40 Ukraine, 94-95 Underpainting. 25.42. 71.119-120 Value of color. 26.40-41. 73.137 contrast in. 140 shifts in. 139 Value scale. 139 Value sketch. 137 Viking helmet. 53 Vitruvian dragon. 85 Wales. 62-63,66 Washington (state), 128-129 Welsh red dragon. 60-61.144-145

Photo by Conceil Delacroix Dracopedia The Great Dragons. Copyright 2012 by William O’Connor. Manufactured in China. All rights reserved. No part ofthis book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means including information storage and retrieval systems without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review. Published by IM PACT Books, an imprint of F+W Media. Inc.. 10151 Carver Road #200, Blue Ash. Ohio. *15242. (800) 289-0963. First Edition. Other fine IMPACT products are available from your favorite bookstore, art supply store or online supplier. Visit our website fJlddid at www.fwmcdia.com. 16 15 14 13 12 5 4 3 2 1 DISTRIBUTED IN CANADA BY FRASER DIRECT !(K> Armstrong Avenue Georgetown, ON, Canada I.7G 5S4 Tel: (905)877-4411 DISTRIBUTED IN Tl IF. U.K. AND EUROPE BY F&W MEDIA INTERNATIONAL. LTD Brunei House, Horde Close, Newton Abbott TQ12 4PU, UK Tel: (+44) 1626 323200, Fax: (+44) 1626 323319 Email: enquiries@fwmcdia.com ABOUT THE AUTHOR William O’Connor is an illustrator, concept artist, fine artist and teacher. He has executed more than 3,000 illustrations for companies such as Wizards of the Coast, Blizzard Entertainment, Lucasfilm, HarperCollins and Activision. He has been a guest lecturer and instructor at the duCret School of Art and the Huntington School of Fine Arts. He has won over thirty awards for his artwork and received four Chesley nominations. He is a member of the Graphic Artists Guild, the Association of Science Fiction and Fantasy Artists, and the American Showcase of Illustration. O’Connor is the author of IMPACT’S best-selling Dracopedia and his work has appeared in six editions of the Spectrum: The Beit in Contemporary Fantastic Art series. Visit his website wocstudios.com and blogwilliamoconnorstudios.blogspot.com. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The making of a book like Dracopedia The Great Dragons takes the effort of many people. I would like to thank all of the wonderful hosts in all of the countries I visited for their hospitality and courtesy to Gonceil and myself. Special thanks go to the entire IMPACT staff without whom this expedition would not have been possible, especially Pam Wissman, Sarah Liichas and Wendy Dunning for their extraordinary work of taking my sketches and notes and transforming them into a beautiful book. Kathy Sobansky for her translation of Ukrainian and Holly Johnson tor her exceptional knowledge of taxonomy. I would also like to thank the World Dragon Protection Fund and the American Institute of Natural Sciences for their valuable support. Finally to Conceil Delacroix without whom I would never have been able to make this trip. DISTRIBU TED IN AUSTRALIA BY CAPRICORN LINK P.O. Box 704, S. Windsor NSW. 2756 Australia Tel: (02)4577-3555 Edited by Sarah Laichas Designed by Wendy Dunning Production coordinated by Mark Griffin
Ideas. Instruction. Inspiration Visit impact-books.com/greatdragons for awesome FREE bonus materials from Dracopedia author William O'Connor! IMPACT-BOOKS.COM Connect with your favorite artists Get the latest in comic, fantasy and sci-fi art instruction, tips and techniques Be the first to get special deals on the products you need to improve your art These and other fine IMPACT products are available at your local art & craft retailer, bookstore or online supplier. Visit our website at impact-books.com. Follow IMPACT for the latest news, free wallpapers, free demos and chances to win FREE BOOKS! Follow us! / http://bitly.com/y83ooq?r=qr
ACADIAN GREEN DRAGON Dracorexus acadius
SCANDINAVIAN BLUE DRAGON Dracorexus sotijenjjorclus CELANDIC I IT E DRAGON trexus reykjavikus LIGURIAN GRAY DRAGON Dracorexus ligurius WELSH RED DRAGON Dracorexus idraigoxus DRAGONS OF THE WORLD
ID CRIMEAN BLACK ' A DRAGON Dracorexus crimeus CHINESE YELLOW DRAGON Dracorexus cathidaeus
 , ' I An artists Field Guide to the world’s Great Dragons! CREATURES OF GREAT BEAUTY and terrible ferocity, dragons have been feared and revered for centuries. Of the thousand-plus species still in existence, none have inspired more folklore and artistic awe than the eight species of Great Dragons. Within these pages, these fire-breathing monsters of legend— the rock stars of the dragon world—come to life through the work of artist and adventurer William O’Connor. Not since the original Dracopedia has there been such a beautifully illustrated and meticulously researched guide on the subject, with special focus on the distinctive features of each species—from the broad horns of the Icelandic white dragon to the elaborate neck frills of the Ligurian gray. Based on the authors expeditions to sanctuaries around the globe and consults with prominent regional experts, Dracopedia The Great Dragons presents never-before assembled facts and instruction to help you capture the heart-beating grandeur of these magnificent monsters. Inside, find everything you need to know to capture the essence of your favorite dragons through your artwork: • Learn about the habits, anatomy and natural history of 8 fierce and fantastic dragons • Each profile features sketches, drawings and start-to-finish creation of a stunning artwork, illustrating key concepts that apply to any medium ■ Discover special techniques for achieving dramatic lighting effects, powerful compositions and the incredible sculptural forms and textures of dragons Includes a gallery of dragons and a foldout comparison poster 035313651786
драконы,длиннопост,длинный длиннопост,art,арт,красивые картинки
Еще на тему
Развернуть
крымняш
а вообще я б почитал нормальную литературу про драконов и в каких мифологиях народов они есть
а эта книга не стоит 27$
tooo tooo 21.01.201712:13 ответить ссылка 5.6
Есть только 3е издание Дракономикона (АДиД)
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B4eLuhiMWTOLWUV1MlJJc09Iamc
SSID SSID 21.01.201713:06 ответить ссылка 2.5
Т.А. Копычева. Мифологическое драконоведение. М. 2012. Бегло электронную версию не нашел, увы (у меня печатная), но, думаю, если хорошо поискать, отыщется.
u17856 u17856 21.01.201723:39 ответить ссылка 0.0
http://dragons-nest.ru

Форум сообщества
Драконы ▼
I Драконы Г Словарные с1<пьи 1
Этимология слова «дракон»
Раса Драконы
Тегга Эгасопка
Изыскания
Мифология
Духовное
Драконы в архитектуре Близкое, далекое Драконы вокруг нас
Это самый длинный пост, который я видел
Mind's I Mind's I 21.01.201712:51 ответить ссылка 15.5
Когда, открыв кат, я периферийным зрением заметил ухнувший в пучины морские ползунок скролла, то понял — следующие полчаса пройдут незабываемо.
меня спас F5
w и s
DutchL DutchL 22.01.201705:26 ответить ссылка 0.1
Залип на пол часа
Лох чи шо?
Кинь пару картинок для примера, остальное архивом, я усрался колесико крутить
пробел для слабаков?
Предупреждать надо о такой длине!
C-Lex C-Lex 21.01.201713:06 ответить ссылка 7.4
твоя мамка также говорила
Ага ))) это у нас по мужской линии передается )))
C-Lex C-Lex 21.01.201713:15 ответить ссылка 2.7
Scull666 Scull666 21.01.201713:24 ответить ссылка -3.2
Как-то двусмысленно получилось
C-Lex C-Lex 21.01.201713:39 ответить ссылка 3.2
а в PDF нету?
SSID SSID 21.01.201713:07 ответить ссылка 1.0
На мобилу устал полистать :(
где скачать можно целиком архив?
Пост не соответствует заявленному описанию. В названии говорится, "Все, что вы хотели знать о драконах, но боялись спросить", а в самой книге куча какой-то отстраненной херни типа истории драконологии, техники рисования, композиции и тому подобного, и ни на один из моих вопросов я ответа так и не получил.
Короче, автор поста врун и негодяй! Обучаясь по этой книге хорошего порно не нарисуешь!
Согласен. Обидно что в такой длинной книге нет ни слова о генеталиях драконов. И о том как драконы занимаются сексом с представителями других видов
Romin Romin 21.01.201714:02 ответить ссылка 2.2
Порно с драконами? Хорошая идея.....
анекдот про слона и мартышку напомнить?
slawomir slawomir 22.01.201709:33 ответить ссылка -0.1
Простите, мой французкий, но "бл@ть как МНОГО картинок!"=) Надо было сначала прочитать тэги, а не открывать кат xD
Не нужно здерживаться. На реакторе ты можешь быть самим собой.
Например, неСдержанным граммар-наци
В целом книжка не очень полезная. Где они вообще видели таких драконов?
Romin Romin 21.01.201714:03 ответить ссылка 1.3
В фантазии своих мозгов.
Хотя темняш мне понравился, а если еще его тело совместить с головой красного, то будет смотреться заебца
(на манер частушек)

Говорила мамка мне
Иди в экономический
Но не лыком ведь я шит
Пошел в драко-технический!
Иееех!
блин, ну уж ооочень длинно.
Jifd Jifd 21.01.201714:26 ответить ссылка 0.1
руководство в котором путают драконов с вивернами
narsus narsus 21.01.201714:31 ответить ссылка -5.5
Виверны это тоже драконы
это дракониды
А НУ МАРШ ПЕРЕЧИТЫВАТЬ 9ЕСТИАРИИ/
grin90 grin90 21.01.201714:40 ответить ссылка -4.8
Вы ведь понимаете, что в некоторых бестиариях дракониды вообще стоят отдельно от драконов и виверн. А в некоторых драконы и виверны одно и тоже. А в некоторых - нет.
Merzon Merzon 21.01.201715:01 ответить ссылка 1.1
Поддержу. Виверны - это дракониды, где "драконид" это, скажем, "отряд".
Грубо говоря, "дракониды" - это "высшие приматы". А уже дракон - это, допустим, горилла, а виверна - шимпанзе.
Смысл спорить о классификации придуманных существ? Как какой автор придумал, так и будет, лол. У каждого свои драконы, виверны и прочие полуэльфы.
Это совершенно не мешает спорить о множестве других придуманных существ. О той же религии тут любят поспорить. И теги просят ставить верные. Т.е. когда ты не верный тег какой то выдуманной фигни путаешь - это преступление, а когда драконов и виверн путаешь - да пофиг?
А эльфы тоже люди, а обезьяна - человек.
О чём ты вообще? Возьми к примеру множество картин на тему "Битва святого Георгия с драконом", на всех изображена виверна, однако её там называют драконом. Потом, Если взять разные бестиарии, то китайский дракон и традиционный европейский внешне совершенно разные, однако оба именуемы драконами
причем ни на одного нет взрослого дракона - максимум подростки, а то и дети даже меньше лошади...
не увидела ни одной виверны, все поголовно драконы (4 лапы два крыла).
Листайте глупцы!
Словил баттхёрт с "китайского" дракона. Это ж надо было так обосраться авторам.
архивом есть? усраться по картинке сохранять, этож не голые сиськи
когда долистал до секции комментариев
Забавное руководство)
Это даже круче чем Медведи-десантники
Soviet Spy Dragon
Here is an artist's rendcnng of a Soviet Cold War-era reconnaissance dragon gear. The dragon militarisation program that centered at the Dracodrome in Crimea spent years working on breeding intelligent specimens of dragons to effect spying missions over NATO territories but with
Зачем ультралиска драконом обозвали?
офигенно
супер
Olmer-85 Olmer-85 18.11.201819:32 ответить ссылка 0.0
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